Optics in Electron and Ion Microscopes (EMs)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


Electrons and ions are described by the same formalism since their propagation in macroscopic fields depends only on the mass and charge of the electrons and ions.

Two approaches, namely geometric optics and wave optics can be used to describe the optics in electron and ion microscope systems. In wave optics, Schrödinger’s wave equation for electrons and Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic waves are normally used. The wave format can be applied to describe the essential behavior of a system that would range from light to electron waves or even sound waves. Geometric optics is an approximation, applying straight lines or rays to describe the propagation of points on a wavefront.




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