Focusing Properties of Electromagnetic Lenses Affected by Aberrations
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers. You can click How to Cite This Book to cite this book. Please let Dr. Liao know once you have cited this book so that the brief information of your publication can appear on the “Times Cited” page. This appearance can also help advertise your publication.



The primary quality of electron optical elements (electromagnetic lenses) in electron microscopes (EMs) is usually degraded by secondary effects. They are aberrations, which can be categorized by three groups: geometric, chromatic, and parasitic aberrations, such as spherical aberration, diffraction aberration, astigmatism, coma aberration, chromatic aberration, and higher-order aberrations. All such defects will perturb the focusing properties of the corresponding lenses.




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