4d Elements in Periodic Table
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -



This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



EELS data on the occupancies of 3d and 4d states can clarify many fundamental problems related to the electronic properties of transition metal alloys. Table 4696a shows the 4d elements in periodic table.

Table 4696a. 4d elements in periodic table

1S 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Elements Structure of the periodic table


Table 4696b. Electron configurations, filling orbitals, and valence electrons of 4d elements

Atomic Number Symbol Name Electron Configuration Filling Orbital Valence Electrons
39 Y Yttrium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d1 5s2  4d1 4d15s2 
40 Zr Zirconium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d2 5s2  4d2 4d25s2 
41 Nb Niobium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d4 5s1  4d4 4d45s1
42 Mo Molybdenum  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d5 5s1  4d5 4d55s1
43 Tc Technetium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d5 5s2  4d6 4d65s1
44 Ru Ruthenium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d7 5s1 4d7 4d75s1
45 Rh Rhodium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d8 5s1 4d8 4d85s1
46 Pd Palladium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 4d10 4d10
47 Ag Silver  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s1 4d10 4d105s1
48 Cd Cadmium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10 5s2 4d10 5s2

Figure 4696 shows the relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z).

Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z)

Figure 4696. Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z) (at low binding energies).






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