3d Elements in Periodic Table
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EELS data on the occupancies of 3d and 4d states can clarify many fundamental problems related to the electronic properties of transition metal alloys. Table 4697a shows the 3d elements in periodic table

Table 4697a. 3d elements in periodic table.

1S 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Elements Structure of the periodic table

Table 4697b. Electron configurations, filling orbitals, and valence electrons of 3d elements

Atomic Number Symbol Name Electron Configuration Filling Orbital Valence Electrons
21 Sc Scandium 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d1 4s2 3d1 3d14s2
22 Ti Titanium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d2 4s2  3d2  3d24s2
23 V Vanadium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d3 4s2  3d3 3d34s2
24 Cr Chromium  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d5 4s1 3d5 3d54s1
25 Mn Manganese  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d5 4s2 3d5 3d54s2
26 Fe Iron  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d6 4s2 3d6 3d64s2
27 Co Cobalt  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d7 4s2 3d7 3d74s2
28 Ni Nickel  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d8 4s2 3d8 3d84s2
29 Cu Copper  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s1 3d10 3d104s1
30 Zn Zinc  1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2 3d10 4s2

Furthermore, for instance, Mn (manganese) orbital configuration, [Ar]4s23d5, allows for a range of possible valence states. The most prevalent configuration in nature are Mn2+, Mn3+, and Mn4+.

Figure 4697a shows the relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z).

Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z)

Figure 4697a. Relation between electron binding energies and atomic number (Z) (at low binding energies).

The ionic radii decrease with increase in atomic number as shown in Table 4697c and Figure 4697b.

Table 4697c. Ionic radii of 3d elements with different valence states.

Valence state Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
2+ 95 pm 80 pm 72 pm 84 pm 91 pm 82 pm 82 pm 78 pm 72 pm
83 pm
3+ 81 pm 76 pm 74 pm 69 pm 66 pm 64 pm 63 pm 62 pm    

Ionic radii of 3d elements

Figure 4697b. Ionic radii of 3d elements.








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