Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter R 
R-centered lattices/R-centering & its space groups
R3 (146) R-3 (148) R32 (155) R3m (160) R3c (161) R-3m (166) R-3c (167)  
R-planes of sapphire crystal  
  Effect of electron beam diameter on radiation damage   Effect of electron dose on radiation damage
  Electron radiation damage depending on energy deposited in specimen   Electrostatic charging in EMs
  Heat generation/temperature increase by electron irradiation   Effect of electron beam diameter on radiation damage
  Electron dose inducing material damage in bulk and at sample surface   Inelastic collision (knock-on)
  Ionization damage (radiolysis) by electrons   Displacement of atoms due to electron irradiation in EMs
  Sputtering & its yield of materials in electron microscopes   Hydrocarbon (HC) contamination of EM specimens
  EELS detection limited by radiation damage    
Radial: Azimuthal and radial circles/Ronchigram in STEM Radial distribution function from electron diffraction patterns
Radiolytic process (radiolysis) induced by electron irradiation  
Radius of path of electrons/charged particles in a magnetic field Radius of HOLZ rings
Radius ratio rule/limiting radius ratio Radon transform
Random access memories Raman spectra
Random distribution of atom positions
  Effect of random distribution of atom positions on diffractograms    
Range of energy losses of various EELS signals  
Rare earth 
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)    
 Rare gas solids
  EELS of rare gas solids    
Ratio techniques
  Ratio technique for elemental quantification by EDS   EDS intensities and their ratio collected by detector
  Ratio of the L3 to L2 white-line intensity for 3d/4d elements   M4/M5 ratio of EELS white lines
  Determination of elemental ratio using EELS    
Rate of energy loss of incident electrons RC time delays in ICs
Redeposition of sputtered atoms in FIB Redistribution and redistribution rate of SEs
Reduced glass transition temperature Refinement: Crystallographic structure refinement
  Film thickness determination by X-ray reflectivity/interference   Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS)
  Reflection electron detecting/amplifying system    
  Refraction effect of secondary electrons   Refractive index
  Refraction index of electron lenses    
Reinstallation of Gatan DM on PC connected with TEM system Relaxation of atoms excited by incident electrons  
Relrod – a thin film diffraction effect in TEM  
  Structural relaxation of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures   Elastic relaxation due to TEM-specimen thinning
  Thermal stress for test of reliability and long-term failure in ICs    
Remanent polarization in ferroelectrics  
Remote/computer application in EMs Removal of atoms due to electron irradiation in EMs
Removal of scan noise in STEM data analysis Removal of sample thickness variations in STEM data analysis
  Rewritable phase-change optical memory disks   Rewritable digital versatile disks
Ray aberration Rayleigh criterion
Real lens in EMs  
  Electron wavefunction in image plane in real space and reciprocal space   Reciprocal space vector
  Real space and reciprocal space in EMs   Diffraction intensity distribution in reciprocal lattices
  Reciprocal lattice spacings   Real crystal spacings/d-spacings & d-Ratio
  Brillouin zone   Wigner-Seitz cell
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries  
  Electron image series reconstruction with TEM   Weak phase object methods in image series reconstruction with TEM
  Parabaloid method for image series reconstruction with TEM   Wiener filter method for image series reconstruction with TEM
  Iterative wave function reconstruction for image series reconstruction with TEM   Reconstruction of off-axis holograms
Rectangular symmetry in electron diffraction patterns Resin 
Resistive switching 
  Bipolar resistive switching in perovskite insulators    
Resistivity/resistance (Electrical)
  Electrical resistivity/resistance of metallic glass depending on temperature   Polysilicon and diffused resistors
  Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR)   Electrical resistivity of materials studied by EELS
  External disturbances on resolution of EMs   Spatial resolution limits  
Retention & retention loss in ferroelectrics  
Responding time of secondary electron emission after electron irradiation Retractable TV-rate camera
  Rhenium Trioxide (ReO3)   Interaction of incident electrons with rhenium element
  EELS measurement of rhodium (Rh)    
Rhombic Penrose tiling  
  Trigonal & rhombohedral space groups    
  Relationship between the hexagonal and primitive rhombohedral unit cells   Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of rhombohedral crystals
Richardson-Lucy deconvolution  
  Right-hand rule of Lorentz force vector     Right-hand rule for cross products
Rochelle salt/Seignette salt (NaKC4H4O6•4H2O) Rock salt/Halite
Rocking-curve intensity oscillations within CBED Rocking point/pivot point/tilt & shift and their purities in TEM
  Ronchigram comparison between Cs-corrected and uncorrected STEM conditions   Coherence of electron beam/interference pattern in STEM/Ronchigram
  Aberration coefficients reflected in Ronchigram     Ronchigram at Gaussian/Scherzer focus
  Ronchigram depending on accelerating voltage of electron beam   Ronchigrams of amorphous films
  STEM alignment with Ronchigram   Defocus/overfocus/underfocus in Ronchigrams
  Ronchigrams of crystalline films in STEM   Spherical aberration rings in Ronchigram
  Aberration determination by focal sets of Ronchigram   Segmental Ronchigram autocorrelation function matrix (SRAM) for aberration correction
  Electron Ronchigram contrast transfer function (CTF) in STEM   Aberration coefficient C1,2/A1: two-fold axial astigmatism and its corrections in TEMs 
  Correction of 3rd order star aberration (S3)   Axial coma (B2) correction with Ronchigram
Room/environment/installation of EM systems Rotary vacuum pumps
  Differences between round and multipole lenses    
  Image rotation in EMs   Rotationally symmetrical electron lenses/magnetic field
  Image helical rotation and inversion when changing magnification or focusing     
  Five-fold axis   Four-fold axis
  Six-fold axis   Three-fold axis
  Two-fold axis    
Rotoinversion axis in crystallography Roughing pumps
Ruthenium (Ru)
  EELS measurement of ruthenium (Ru)    
  Rutherford cross-section   Rutherford (elastic) scattering and HAADF 
  Rutherford’s nuclear model   Model of beam broadening based on Rutherford scattering theory
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