Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter L
L-family of characteristic X-ray emission Large uniform-thickness FIB-TEM specimen preparation
Large electron source Laue groups & centrosymmetric space groups
Laue class/Laue symmetry Laue‘s diffraction condition
  Dislocation detection by CBED and LACBED    
  EELS measurement of lanthanum   EDS measurement of lanthanum
  Lanthanum Titanate (LaTiO3)   Superlattice of SrTiO3 and LaTiO3
  Atomic-number contrast of lanthanum ions   La1.2CrS3.2
  La2O3   LaAlO3
  La2CuSnO6   LaMnO3
  La-based metallic-glass alloys   La2-xBaxCuO4
  LaB6 electron guns and their microscopes   Comparison between different electron sources/guns
Larmor frequency in EMs Laplace's equation
Lattice distortion Lattice point/motif/basis
Lattice mismatch & misfit dislocation separation  
  Lattice parameters of minerals   Lattice-fringe visibility and its band
  Lattice-fringe visibility maps   Lattice-fringe/structural fingerprinting
  Planes in lattice system of crystals   Directions in lattice system of crystals
  Determination of Burgers vector of lattice defects   One-dimensional (1-D) lattice
  Two-dimensional (2-D) lattice

  Three-dimensional (3-D) lattice
  Number of lattice points (atoms) per unit cell   Lattice type
  Change of lattice parameter due to doping   TEM experimental determination of lattice parameters
  d-spacings/real crystal spacings & d-Ratio   Accuracy of lattice spacing measurements by HRTEM/FFT/electron diffraction
  Lattice parameter measurement of single particles   Determination of lattice parameters/strain by plasmon EELS
  Semiconducting laser diodes (LDs)   Failure modes of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs)
  Laser stimulated seebeck effect imaging (SEI)   Thermal laser stimulation
  Lasers used in thermal laser stimulation   Light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA)
  Cost of lasers and lights   Laser beam direct writing (LBW)
Laves structure/phase  
  EDS measurement of lead (Pb)   EELS of lead
  Lead magnesium niobate [Pb(Mgm/nNbn-m/n)O3, PMN]   Pb1-pCr2X4-p (X = ˆS, Se)
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)   PbxNb1.17W1.0O5.93+x
  Lead applied in EM systems   Pb-based metallic-glass alloys
  Leakage in MOS structure    Leakage current in MOS gate in DRAM circuits
  Leakage current in gate oxide of MOS    
  Least squares   Linear least squares fitting technique
  Digital-filtered least-squares peak fitting for EDS quantification    
Length and location of aberration correctors  
  Aplanatic lenses and aplanatic points   Gun lens in EMs
  Side-entry and top-entry lens in TEM systems      
  Aperture effect/function of lens   Functions of electron lens in EMs
  Relationship between lens & Fourier transformation   Lens strength in electron microscopes  
  Lens requirement in EMs   Superconducting lens for EMs
  Lenses for fine probe/beam formation in EMs   'Mini' lens 
  Concave lens in electron microscopes   Ideal/perfect lenses in EMs
  Stability/instability of lens currents in EMs   Projector lenses in TEMs
  Intermediate/diffraction lens   Electrostatic gun lens in EMs
  Copper windings of wire in electromagnetic lenses   Iron (Fe) shroud in electromagnetic lenses
  Octopole and other lenses in FIB   Divergent lenses
  Astigmatism in EMs   Chromatic aberration in EMs
  Spherical aberration in EMs   Coma in EMs
  Distortion of images in EMs    
Lichte’s defocus  
  Lifetime of electron gun    
“Lift-out” FIB-TEM specimen preparation technique Ligand field theory
  Electron relaxation and light/cathodoluminescence   ZnSSe-based/GaAs heterostructures
  Attenuation of light   Ultraviolet light
    Light technology
  Cost of lasers and lights    
  Defects in crystalline materials in LEDs   Light emission efficiencies in LEDs
  Failure modes of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs)    
Light/low-atomic-number element 
  Contrast difference between heavy and light elements   EDS quantification of light elements
  Spatial resolution of EDS on light element matrices   EDS of light elements
  HRTEM analysis of light elements    
  Light microscope and Zacharias Janssen     Comparison between optical and electron microscopes
  In situ observation in optical microscopes   Spatial resolution of light microscopes
 Limit in EMs
  Limitations: not all aberration correctors are useful/economic for EMs or applications   TEM contrast limit of chemical elements
  Factors limiting imaging and spectroscopy in TEM   Scherzer expression/resolution/limit
Limiting radius ratio/radius ratio rule  
  Dark-line defects    
Line focus in EMs  
  Linear lossless dielectrics   Linear contrast transfer theory
  Linear lossy dielectrics   Linear imaging conditions in TEM 
  Linear least squares fitting technique    
  Liquid TEM and STEM stage and holder   In Situ liquid TEM/STEM analysis
  Liquid-metal ion source (LMIS)
  Analysis of liquids
 Liquid nitrogen
  Liquid nitrogen (N2) cooled cryostat (e.g. in EDS detectors)   Funnels used to fill cold traps with liquid nitrogen for EMs
List of notations in the book  
  EELS measurement of lithium element   TEM observation of lithium (Li)
  Comparison of various X-ray spectrometers   Lithium drifted & intrinsic germanium EDS detectors
  Aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) based alloys   Lithium-titanium-oxide anodes for batteries
  Lithium-drifted silicon diodes & Si(Li) EDS detectors    Lithium ion batteries
  FIB lithography   Electron beam lithography (EBL)
  Comparison between FIB, electron beam and laser beam techniques   Proximity effect in lithography
Live time in EDS measurements Local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS)
Lock-in IR-OBIRCH Longitudinal spherical aberration
Long range ordering (LRO) in materials Long-term failure and reliability in ICs
  Glide and dislocation loops   Ostwald ripening/coarsening of dislocation loops
  Electrons emitted at low & high angles from electron guns   Lower- & upper-objective polepiece in TEMs and STEMs
  Low standby power devices   Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF)
  Low angle elastic scattering and coherence in TEM   Low vacuum SEM 
  Low index planes    
Low energy
  EELS measurements with low-energy incident electrons   Unique phenomena occurring at low energy of incident electrons
  X-ray generation due to low-energy incident electrons   Low-energy X-rays and elemental quantification
  Analysis of low energy loss in EFTEM and EELS   Modeling of electronic structure by low-loss EELS
  Determination of band gap from low-loss spectra in EELS    
Low voltage  
  Advantages and disadvantages of low-/high-voltage TEM and STEM   Low voltage EMs in biological applications
  Optimized low voltage EMs for high performances (e.g. with Cs correctors)   Low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM)
  Low voltage energy dispersive spectroscopy (LVEDS) or low-energy X-ray emission spectroscopy (LEXES)   Comparison of EDS measurements with low- & high-energy incident electrons
Lorentz force of moving electron in magnetic field Loss of elements in EM specimen detected by EDS
Lorentz lens/mode for TEMs Lorentzian distribution
  Cathodoluminescence   Electroluminescence (EL) technique
Lα X-ray emission Lβ X-ray emission
L2,3 edges of EELS: white lines for 3d transition metals and their alloys L2,3 edges of EELS: white lines for 4d transition metals and their alloys
L3/L2 ratio in analysis of white lines in EEL spectrum  
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