Electron microscopy
 
Proximity Effect in Lithography
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
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For Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), the major factor limiting the reduction of feature sizes in integrated circuits (ICs) is the so-called proximity effect due to backscattered electrons. However, this effect does not exist in FIB lithography.

Note that the proximity effect gives rise to a resist exposure profile wider at the substrate/resist interface than at the surface of the resist layer. [1]

 

 

 

 

[1] F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, and S. Hard, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897-903 (1995).

 

 

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