Electron microscopy
Proximity Effect in Lithography
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


For Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), the major factor limiting the reduction of feature sizes in integrated circuits (ICs) is the so-called proximity effect due to backscattered electrons. However, this effect does not exist in FIB lithography.

Note that the proximity effect gives rise to a resist exposure profile wider at the substrate/resist interface than at the surface of the resist layer. [1]





[1] F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, and S. Hard, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897-903 (1995).



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