Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter D 
d shell electrons
  Outer d shell electrons    
  d-spacing ratios of allowed Bragg reflections for some space groups    
 
D-SUB 44 connector  
 Damage
  EM improvements for reducing beam damage   Removal of atoms due to electron irradiation in EMs
  Dependence of radiation damage on accelerating voltage of electrons   Problems/damage of apertures
  Sample damage in TEM measurements   Damage of TEM specimen holder
  Sputtering/knock-on of atoms from beam-exit surface of TEM sample   Electron beam damage depending on TEM/SEM specimen thickness
  Damage of EDS detectors   EDS artifacts induced by beam damage
  Elemental loss in EM specimen detected by EDS   Ion-beam induced structural change/damage at surfaces in FIB
  Low electron beam current density to minimize specimen damage in EELS measurements   Electron beam damage monitored by EELS
  Coating of TEM specimen to reduce beam damage & sputtering   Cross section for bulk and surface diffusion induced by electron irradiation
  Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation at sample surface   Cross-sections of surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation
  Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation in bulk    
  Displacement damage   Sputtering damage in EMs
  Ionization damage in EMs    
 
Damascene: copper damascene interconnects  
  Temporal-coherence envelope function   TEM/STEM characteristics affected by CTF damping
Dangling-bonds
  Dangling-bonds in grain boundaries    
  Dark current and its removal in EELS and EFTEM    
 Dark-field (DF) imagings
  Dark-field (DF) imaging in TEM   Beam tilt with dark-field deflection coils
  Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)   ADF-TEM (annular dark-field transmission electron microscopy) aperture
 
Data acquisition and analysis using PC in EMs Dead layers in EDS detectors
de Broglie wave equation Dead time in EDS measurement
Debye-Scherrer rings in electron diffraction patterns Debye phonon model
Decagonal quasicrystal  
Decay probability from initial state to final state De-excitation process of electrons
Deconvolution
  TEM image processing and deconvolution   Deconvolution in EELS
  Fourier–log deconvolution in EELS   Fourier-ratio method for EELS deconvolution
  Deconvolution for noise reduction in EEL spectra    
  Dependence of single and multiple inelastical scatterings of electrons on TEM sample thickness   Richardson-Lucy deconvolution
  Maximum-entropy deconvolution   Deconvolution in EDS analysis
 Decoder in integrated circuit
  Word line (WL) decoder of DRAM circuits   Defect: Lens defects
 
Dedicated STEM (DSTEM) systems    
  Deep level states in band gap analyzed by EELS    
  TEM analysis of defects in amorphous materials     Defect analysis by TEM/STEM
  Interfacial defects   Point defects
  Defects in metallic glasses   Bulk defects
  Deep level traps and charged defects in materials   Defects/failure in IC chips
  Line defects   Dark patches
  Dissociation   Defects in crystalline materials in LEDs
  Generation of defects in crystals   Anisotropy of thermal expansion coefficients due to defects
  Theoretical interpretation of STEM/TEM images about crystalline defects   Determination of Burgers vector of lattice defects
  Generation of defects in crystals depending on cooling rates   {113} or {311} defects
  Defects in crystals formed by ion-implantation and annealing   Analysis of crystal deformation/distortion
 
Deficiency lines in zero-order disc in CBED patterns Deflection angle in electron holography
  Electron-beam deflecting/scanning coil control system   Double deflection scan coils in STEMs
  Shutter used in EELS and EFTEM measurements   Beam blanking deflector in EMs and FIB
  Defocus spread/fluctuation in EMs   Focusing/defocusing action in EMs
  Focusing action of lens    Defocus induced by chromatic aberration/energy deviation in electrons
  Standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of defocus due to the chromatic aberration    
  Scherzer defocus   Gabor defocus
  Lichte’s defocus   Defocus series in TEM imaging
  TEM contrast and underfocus/defocus   In-focus in TEM imaging
  Focusing sensitivity in TEM imaging   Standard focus/Eucentric height versus sample tilt in TEM
  Wavefunction in defocusing plane in TEM imaging   Defocus affecting Fresnel fringes in TEM images
  Phase shift from defocus and spherical aberration   Aberration coefficients determined by defocus-based techniques
  Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
  Best/optimum defocus condition for HRTEM imaging    
Defocus/defocus: Diffraction
  Focus of electron diffraction in TEM    
Defocus/defocus: STEM
  Defocused convergent incident electron beam   HRSTEM image contrast as function of defocus
  Defocus series in STEM imaging   Sensitivity of STEM contrast to focus
  Sensitivity of CTF to defocus of objective lens    
Defocus/defocus: EFTEM/EELS
  Spectrum focus adjustment in EFTEM   Dependence of defocus on EELS and quantitative analysis  
  Effects of defocus on EELS    
Delay: RC time delays in ICs  
Delocalization
  Contrast delocalization/blurring effect in TEM images   SEM resolution affected by delocalization of inelastic scattering
  Delocalization of EELS measurements   Delocalization in inelastic scattering
  Image localization in STEM    
 
Delta-type aberration correctors Demonstrations by EM manufacturers
Dendrites
  Nano-dendrites and their formation    
Density: Material densities
  (Atomic) density of different materials    
  TEM contrast/fringes at interface between two materials   Packing density in some crystal planes
  Partial density of states (PDOS)   Density-functional theory (DFT)
  Density-functional theory (DFT) simulations of EELS profiles   Joint density of states (JDOS)
Deformation (plastic)  Demagnification in EMs
Descan of electron beam in (S)TEM Desktop/portable/tabletop SEM
Desktop computers Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in EELS and imaging system
Deposition
  FIB (ion beam) induced deposition (IBID)   Charging enhanced electron/ion-beam-induced-deposition
  Material growth on convex surfaces   Gallium contamination due to FIB milling & in FIB deposits
  Laser beam direct writing (LBW)    
  Amorphization of materials induced by e-beam Pt deposition    
Depth of field in EM Depth of focus in EM
Depth sensitivity of REELS & Dependence of depth on primary electron beam energy/incident angle/collection angle Depth sensitivity & spatial resolution of EBSD
Destructive: Visual inspection for destructive and/or nondestructive analysis of IC chips Detector envelope function for EM imaging
 Detectors
  Detectors for SEM   Secondary electron detecting/amplifying system in EMs
  Contribution of transfer properties of detector to diffractograms   EBSD detector
  HAADF detectors      
 
Deviation parameter/excitation error of Bragg reflections    
Dew Point Diameter of electron beam
  High-k dielectric materials   Static dielectric constant
  Bandgap energies of dielectrics   Dielectric constant of ferroelectric crystals
  Ferroelectric dielectric hysteresis & hysteresis loop   Linear lossless dielectrics
  Linear lossy dielectrics   Non-linear lossless dielectrics
  Non-linear lossy dielectrics    
 
Dielectric response/function of material valence electrons Dielectric-constant determination by EELS
  Extinctions and weak spots showing in electron diffraction patterns of diamond   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  Solid solubility of various impurities in carbon/diamond   Diamond structure
 
Differential correlation function  
  Cross section: Inelastic differential (introduction & theory)    
Diffraction 
  Diffraction of plane wave from multiple point sources   X-ray diffraction
  Electron diffraction in TEM     Fraunhofer diffraction
  Intermediate/diffraction lens    
Diffraction-induced artifacts in measurements
  Channelling/diffraction enhanced X-ray emission in EDS measurements   Electron channeling/diffraction in EELS measurements
 
Diffuse diffraction streaks in electron diffraction from columnar substructures Diffuse scattering of electrons in TEM
Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder Diffused and polysilicon resistors
Diffusion of atoms in materials
  Diffusionless phase transformation
  Vacancy detection by elemental diffusion
Diffusion coefficients 
  Diffusion coefficients of elements in nickel   Diffusion/penetration/diffusivity of elements through grain boundaries
  Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through single crystals   Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through surfaces
  Differential pumping aperture (DPA) in EMs   Silicon oils from diffusion pump
DigiScan
  Set flyback time in DigiScan image to avoid image distortion     DigiScan software and hardware
Digital
  Digital electro-optical imaging sensor   Digital holography
  Digital imaging camera   Gatan Digital Micrograph
  Rewritable digital versatile disks   Digital-filtered least-squares peak fitting for EDS quantification
 
Dimension/size Dimethylacetamide (DMAc)
Dimers
  Energy level diagrams for single atoms, dimers, clusters & bulk materials    
Diodes
  Semiconducting light-emitting diodes (LEDs)   Semiconducting laser diodes (LDs)
 
Dipole design for Cs corrector in EMs Dipole transitions in electron excitations
Direct
  Interference between direct and diffracted beams in TEM   Direct bandgap
  Direct methods   Direct interband transition
 
Direction of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics  
  Angle between directions   Close packed planes and directions in crystals
 
Director/manager of electron microscope labs Disadvantages
Discharging and charging in electron guns Discrete/continuous/fast Fourier transform (DFT/CFT/FFT)
Designs
  Consideration of X-radiation protection in EM design    
 
Disk size/radius in CBED  
Dislocations in crystals
  Sense vector   Vector description of crystal dislocations
  Dislocation visibility/observation in TEM and EMs   Frank’s rule in dislocation theory
  Dislocation node   SiGe/Si system and its defects
  Misfit dislocation: Lattice mismatch versus misfit dislocation separation   Extra energy introduced by dislocations
  Dislocation density   Dislocation detection by CBED and LACBED 
  Ostwald ripening/coarsening of dislocation loops   Perfect dislocations
  Widths of dislocations   Determination of Burgers vectors of dislocations
  Dislocation cores
   
Dislocations: Burgers vector
  Determination of Burgers vectors of dislocations   Burgers circuit
  Burgers vectors of dislocations (Tables)    
Dislocations: Edge dislocations  
   
  Clustering of vacancies into dislocation loops   Glide and dislocation loops
Dislocations: Mixed dislocations
  Motion and slip of mixed dislocation
   
Dislocations: screw dislocation
  Screw dislocation formation due to shear stress   Types of screw dislocations
Disorder 
  Bonding disorder in materials   Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder
Displacements
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM   Atomic displacement parameter/factor & mean-square atomic displacement
  Displacement energy for bulk and surface diffusion induced by electron irradiation   Displacement energy for atoms in bulk and at sample surface due to electron irradiation
  Displacement energy for surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold of chemical elements due to electron irradiation at sample surface
  Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation in bulk   Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation at sample surface
  Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation in bulk   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation
  Energy transfer for atomic displacement/knock-on process due to electron irradiation    
 
Displacive ferroelectrics Distance between two electrons in electron beam in EMs
Distortions
  Projector lenses and image distortion in EMs   Image distortion correction in FETEM
  Set flyback time in DigiScan image to avoid image distortion     Correction of electron beam distortion in EMs
  Artifacts in off-axis electron holograms: distortions   Distortion/asymmetry of X-ray peak from Gaussian shape in EDS
  Angular distribution    
 
Divergent lenses Dodecagonal quasicrystal
Dodecapole/hexapole/double-hexapole/sextupole design for Cs corrector in EMs  
  Angle between polarization vectors of adjacent domains in various crystalline phases in ferroelectrics    
Dopant
  Techniques for dopant profiling in semiconductors   SEM contrast dependence on dopants in semiconductors
  Measurement of electric field/dopant/p-n junction using off-axis electron holography   Dependence of dopant contrast in Si on accelerating voltage of primary electron in SEM
  Dopant energy levels in crystalline silicon   Dopant deactivation induced by FIB sample preparation
  Change of lattice parameter due to doping    
 Dose
  Electron dose of electron beam    
  Electron dose inducing material damage in bulk and at sample surface   Ion irradiation dose
  Minimum electron dose for sufficient EELS counts   Low dose TEM/STEM imaging
 
Double cross-sections for examination of damage of prepared EM sample surface Double deflection scan coils in STEMs
Double perovskite crystalline structures  
DRAM
  Leakage current in MOS gate in DRAM circuits   Word line (WL) decoder of DRAM circuits
Drifts 
  EELS spectrum energy drift    Electron beam drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs
  Specimen drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs   Contribution of specimen drift to diffractograms
  Drift tube in GIF system   Spatial resolutions limited by specimen drifts
  Spatial drift & its correction in EFTEM imagings   Drift & jump of EEL spectra or images
  Degradation of EDS spatial resolution due to specimen drift    
 
Driving force for the phase transition in materials Drude-Lorentz model
Dual beam FIB/SEM Dynamic characteristics of voltage contrast
Dynamic range of camera  Dynamical effects of PED (precession electron diffraction)
  Pendellösung/Pendellosung fringes in crystals   Dynamical theory for energetic electron-matter interaction
  Dynamical extinction lines in CBED patterns    
  Double/multiple diffraction in electron diffraction patterns   Two-beam dynamical electron scattering/diffraction
Dwell times
  Dwell time/scan speed in TEM/STEM imaging and elemental mapping