Sputtering Yield/Atomic Removal Rate caused by Electron Irradiation in EMs
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The removal rate (sputtering yield, Y) of atoms caused by electron irradiation in EMs (electron microscopes) is related to the sputtering cross section. The number of surface atoms removed per incident electron is given by Y = σdNs. Here, Ns is the number of surface atoms per unit area. Since Ns is of the order of 1015 cm-2 and a sputtering cross section is of the order of 10-22 cm2, the removal rate of atoms is of the order of 10-7.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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