Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter T 
t2g & eg symmetries/states  
Tabletop/desktop/portable SEM Take-off angle in EDS system
Taylor and Maclaurin series Taylor cone
  EDS measurement of tantalum (Ta)   Ta2O5
  TaSiNx   TaSix 
  Tantalum (Ta) in ICs   TaN
  Copper (Cu) interconnects with tantalum (Ta) barrier   Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)
  Techniques for dopant profiling in semiconductors    
  Analysis techniques for ferroelectric materials   Spatial resolutions between various techniques
Television (TV) camera for EMs  
Tellurium (Te)
  EELS of tellurium (Te)   GexSbyTez (GST)
  Te-X phase diagrams   Te-based metallic-glass alloys
  Comparison between CTEM and STEM   Comparison of TEM and SEM
  Applications of TEM-related techniques   Defocus in TEM imaging
  EELS and quantitative analysis in TEM imaging mode     Instability of TEM imaging due to specimen charging
  Hybrid TEMs   Schematic diagram of TEM systems
  Aberration correction in CTEM   Cs corrector in TEM
  Position of parts in TEM system   Phonon effect on TEM imaging
  Imaging geometries of TEM and STEM systems   Wavefunction affected by aberrations in CTEM
  Underfocusing objective lens in TEMs   Image shift/drift in TEM
  Intensity/signal comparison between STEM and CTEM   Virtual objective aperture (VOA) in TEM/STEM
  Probe shift in TEM system when switching between TEM and other modes   TEM experimental determination of lattice parameters
  TEM image processing and deconvolution   History of TEM
  Interpretation of TEM/STEM Images   Diffraction contrast in TEM images
  Ultrahigh voltage TEMs   Optimized low voltage EMs for high performances
  Caustic image in TEM   Diffraction pattern formed in imaging condition/image plane/objective plane
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM   Electron-beam-tilt-induced coma in TEM
  Contrast transfer function (CTF, Phase CTF, or PCTF)   STEM/TEM imaging with incoherent electrons
  Stobbs factor in TEM imaging   Background contrast in TEM/STEM images
  Phase shift of electrons depending on scattering angle in TEM/STEM   TEM modeling/simulation
  Phase-contrast in TEM images   TEM designs for biological applications
  TEM imaging on biological materials   Focusing in TEM imaging
  Hysteresis factor in TEMs   Magnification and its adjustment in TEM
  Comparison of lens conditions between TEM diffraction and TEM imaging modes   Goniometer stage in TEMs/STEMs
  Sample damage in TEM measurements   Electronic noise in TEM/STEM/SEM/EELS/EDS systems
  Signal-to-noise ratio in TEM/STEM images   In Situ TEM/STEM
  In Situ liquid TEM/STEM analysis   Liquid TEM and STEM stage and holder
  Lorentz lens for TEMs   EELS measurements in TEM imaging mode
  Advantages and disadvantages of low voltage TEM and STEM   Advantages and disadvantages of TEM-related techniques
  Manufacturers/companies producing FIB & EM instruments   Installation/room/environment of EM systems
  Angular distribution of signal/information from TEM measurements   Voltage axis in TEM
  Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM)    
TEM operation
  Image-shift function and its lens in TEM   Acquisition of STEM images/STEM operation 
  Alignments   Optical condition for high-magnification imaging in TEM
  Voltage centering in TEM   Current centering in TEM
  Tilt of electron beam in EMs   Autofocus methods in TEM imaging
  Anode wobbler in TEM   Streaking artifact in TEM/STEM images
  Challenges of TEM analysis on nanoparticles   Accuracy of CD (critical dimension) measurements using TEM
  Scan speed/Dwell time in TEM/STEM imaging    
  TEM specimen preparation for defect analysis in amorphous materials
  TEM analysis of short range ordering in amorphous materials
TEM analysis of particular materials 
  TEM analysis of metallic materials   TEM analysis of ceramics
  TEM analysis of catalysts   Defect analysis by TEM/STEM
  Interface analysis by TEM/STEM    
  Comparison between TEM and STEM bright field imagings   Dependence of image contrast on accelerating voltage in TEM/STEM
  TEM contrast and underfocus/defocus   Mass-thickness contrast in TEM images
  Diffraction contrast in TEM images   TEM contrast/fringes at interface between two materials
  In-focus in TEM imaging   Fresnel fringes in TEM images
  TEM contrast limit of chemical elements   Contrast delocalization/blurring effect in TEM images
  TEM detection limit of bubble/void/holes in materials   TEM/HRTEM contrast of bubble/void/holes in materials
  Contrast reversal of bright field TEM/STEM images    
TEM Sample  
  Basic requirements of TEM specimen   TEM sample thickness satisfying weak phase criterion
  TEM sample thickness for STEM and EELS ~ Mean Free Path   Diffraction pattern formed in objective plane
  Secondary electrons emitted from TEM thin film   Sample location in TEM system
  Double cross-sections for examination of damage of prepared EM sample surface   Thin TEM sample to avoid multiple/plural scattering
  Biological TEM specimen   Poor TEM sample quality limiting data interpretation
  Poor TEM sample quality limiting quantitative analysis   Theoretical model for TEM samples
  Sample storage in TEMs and operation time reduction   Argon implantation occurring in TEM sample milling process
  Dependence of single and multiple inelastical scatterings of electrons on TEM sample thickness   CBED Kikuchi pattern contrast depending on samples thickness
  Mechanical vibration/thermal effects on EMs: e.g. sample drift     Avoid damaging fragile TEM samples
  Phase shift of incident electrons induced by TEM specimen   Image rotation in EMs
  Wobbler for condenser lens excitation in TEM/STEM   TEM film thickness dependence of Fresnel fringes
  Wobbler for high tension in TEM/STEM   Object plane (sample plane) of objective lens
  Damage of TEM specimen holder   Effects of amorphous layer and specimen thickness on high resolution STEM images
  Dynamical scattering of electrons in thick TEM specimen   Projected potential model for TEM specimens
  TEM/STEM specimen holders   Applications of wedge-shaped TEM specimen in EM analysis
  Electron beam damage depending on TEM/SEM specimen thickness   Elastic relaxation due to TEM-specimen thinning
  TEM/STEM holders for in-situ synthesis and characterizations   Specimen (stage) drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs
TEM sample height in TEM system
  Change of image due to change of TEM sample height   Change of diffraction pattern due to change of TEM sample height
  Defocus effect due to change of TEM sample height   TEM specimen traverse induced by specimen tilt
  TEM specimen traverse induced by beam tilt
TEM sample preparations
  Coating of TEM specimen to reduce beam damage & sputtering   Carbon coating on TEM samples – to avoid charging effect
  Extremely high quality TEM/STEM sample preparation   Electropolishing for TEM sample preparation
  TEM specimen preparation by crushing bulk crystals   TEM specimen preparation for defect analysis in amorphous materials
  TEM sample preparation for atomic short-range ordering analysis   TEM specimen requirements in semiconductor industry
  Methanol applied in TEM sample preparation   TEM specimen grids for EDS analysis
  Wedge polishing method for TEM specimen preparation   Microtome for specimen-sectioning
  High pressure freezing (HPF) for TEM sample preparation    
  Advantages and disadvantages of FIB technology for EM sample preparations   Curtain effect in FIB-EM sample preparation
  Mounting of TEM grid in grid-holder of FIB system   Plasma cleaning of FIB prepared specimens
  Temperature increase/heat generation in TEM sample preparation by FIB   Temperature increase/heat generation in FIB deposition
  Tungsten deposition by FIB   Requirements and preparation of nano-particles TEM samples
  Ultra-thin TEM specimens prepared by FIB milling   Large uniform-thickness FIB-TEM specimen preparation
  Cryo-focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM)    
TEM sample preparation by ion milling
  Preferential ion milling at grain boundaries   TEM sample preparation method of mechanical polishing + ion milling
  Cryo-focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM)    
TEM specimen contamination 
  Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon contamination of EM specimens   Carbon contamination effects on EELS measurements & its reduction
  Cold trap to prevent contamination of TEM specimen   Electron beam flooding/beam shower to eliminate contamination effects in EMs
TEM simulations
  Multislice simulation (MS) of TEM images    
  HRTEM (High Resolution TEM) and its improvement   Bright-field (BF) imaging in TEM 
  Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) in TEM   Dark-field (BF) imaging in TEM
  convergent beam diffraction (CBED)   Electron energy loss spectra (EELS)
  Energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS)   Best TEM imaging conditions
  Image contrast in aberration-corrected EMs   Different TEM techniques for crystalline grains in various sizes
  Low dose TEM/STEM imaging    
TEM examples
  Examples of TEM/STEM systems   TEM analysis of magnetic materials
  Tilt tomography in TEM and STEM   Single particle analysis
  Tilt HAAD STEM tomography   Crystal growth in ICs studied by electron tomography
  Confocal/focal series STEM   Tilt azimuth restorations in TEM imaging
  Resolution in electron tomography   Artifact in electron tomography
  Temporal coherence/incoherence of electron source   Contribution of partial temporal coherence to diffractograms
  Temporal-coherence envelope function    
  Operating temperature in electron guns   Temperature dependence of unit cell volume in crystals
  Heating temperature of electron guns    
Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR)  
  Temperature rise in STEM measurement   Temperature increase/heat generation by electron irradiation
  Temperature increase/heat generation in TEM sample preparation by FIB   Temperature increase/heat generation in FIB deposition
Ternary tungsten oxides Tetrahedral lattices
Tetrahedral structure in amorphous materials  
  Palladium oxide (PdO)   4/m point group
  4 point group   -4 point group
  422 point group   -42m point group
  4mm point group   4/mmm point group
I (body-centered) lattices/I-centering & their space groups          
I4 (79) I41 (80) I-4 (82) I4/m (87) I41/a (88) I422 (97) I4122 (98) I4mm (107)
I4cm (108) I41md (109) I41cd (110) I-4m2 (119) I-4c2 (120) I-42m (121) I-42d (122) I4/mmm (139)
I4/mcm (140) I41/amd (141) I41/acd (142)          
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P4 (75) P41 (76) P42 (77) P43 (78) P-4 (81) P4/m (83) P42/m (84) P4/n (85)
P42/n (86) P422 (89) P4212 (90) P4122 (91) P41212 (92) P4222 (93) P42212 (94) P4322 (95)
P43212 (96) P4mm (99) P4bm (100) P42cm (101) P42nm (102) P4cc (103) P4nc (104) P42mc (105)
P42bc (106) P-42m (111) P-42c (112) P-421m (113) P-421c (114) P-4m2 (115) P-4c2 (116) P-4b2 (117)
P-4n2 (118) P4/mmm (123) P4/mcc (124) P4/nbm (125) P4/nnc (126) P4/mbm (127) P4/mnc (128) P4/nmm (129)
P4/ncc (130) P42/mmc (131) P42/mcm (132) P42/nbc (133) P42/nnm (134) P42/mbc (135) P42/mnm (136) P42/nmc (137)
P42/ncm (138)              
Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) Thermal e-h Pair
  Thermal conductivity measurements    
Thermal expansion coefficients
  Anisotropy of thermal expansion coefficients due to defects   Thermal expansion measurements
  Thermal diffuse (quasi-elastically) scattering (TDS) & HAADF     Thermal-diffuse-scattering in in-situ heating HAADF-STEM
  Energy filter applied to observation of thermal-diffuse streaks in electron diffractions   Inelastical phonon excitation & thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) of electrons in EMs
  Dependence of thermal diffuse scattering on atomic number   Thermal oxidation of silicon
Thermal diffusivities of materials  
  Optical beam induced resistance change (OBIRCH)   Laser Seebeck effect imaging (SEI)
  Thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA)   Pulsed thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA)
  Streaking artifacts in TIVA and OBIRCH images   Application of solid immersion lens in thermal laser stimulation techniques
  Lasers used in thermal laser stimulation   Sensitivity of thermal laser stimulation methods in EFA
  Optimized wafer thickness for TLS measurements    
Thermal stress for test of reliability and long-term failure in ICs Thermal quenching
  Comparison between different electron sources/guns    
  Tungsten electron gun   LaB6 electron guns
Thermionic emission Thermodynamic stability of metal gate oxides in ICs
Thermoelectric power and thermocouple Thermal FEG
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Thermionic electron emission guns
Thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling Thermo-plastic expansion induced film bending due to FIB irradiation
Thickness of EM samples
  Thickness requirements of TEM samples for EELS/EFTEM/HAADF STEM   Contribution of specimen thickness to diffractograms
  EELS artifacts from ultra-thin TEM specimens - surface effects   Dependence of signal types on sample thickness in EMs
  Advantages and disadvantages between thin and thick/bulk sample in EMs   EM sample thickness dependence of spatial resolution
  EDS spatial resolution depending on EM sample thickness   k-factor/ZAF correction due to sample thickness effect (x-ray absorption)
  Sample thickness dependence of TEM image intensity/contrast   Mass-thickness contrast in TEM images
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM affected by specimen thickness   TEM sample thickness determination by electron holography
  Film thickness determination by X-ray reflectivity/interference   Optimization of specimen thickness for strain analysis by CBED
  Optimization of specimen thickness for electron holography analysis   Dependence of EELS signal on TEM specimen thickness
  Dependence of observable thickness on accelerating voltage in TEM/STEM    
Thickness determination of TEM/STEM samples
  Sample thickness determination using CBED   Sample thickness determination using EELS/FETEM
  Diffraction of thick TEM specimen   Parallax measurements
  TEM/STEM film thickness measurements based on contamination spots   TEM sample thickness determination through diffraction
  Overall electron diffraction and Kikuchi lines depending on TEM sample thickness   TEM sample thickness determination by thickness fringes: extinction distance
  Dependence of BF/ADF-STEM intensity on specimen thickness    
 Thin-film approximations
  Thin-foil criterion (thin-film approximation) in EDS measurement    
Thon rings in bright-filed imaging  
  Third-order star aberration   Third-order spherical aberration correction 
Thorium (Th) 
  EDS measurement of thorium (Th)    
  Determination of threefold astigmatism in TEM measurements   Three-window method for EFTEM/EELS elemental mapping/quantification
  Three-fold symmetry of electromagnetic fields   Threefold astigmatism of objective lens in TEM
  Three-dimensional sectioning of specimens using STEM   3D effect and relevant correction in EDS quantification
  Three-dimensional (3-D) lattice   Three-fold axis in crystals
Through-the-lens (in-lens/immersion lens) SEM detectors  
  Beam-tilt induced effects in TEM   Sample-tilt induced effects in TEM
  Tilt tomography in TEM and STEM   Diffraction variation due to TEM sample tilt
  Accuracies of beam tilt & of alignment of zone axis   Tilt of electron beam in EMs
  Alignment of zone axis following Kikuchi lines by tilting EM samples   Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM
  Zemlin tableaus method   Gun-alignment coil control system/gun shift and tilt in EMs
  HRSTEM image contrast as function of crystal tilt   HRSEM image contrast as function of crystal tilt
  Standard focus/Eucentric height versus sample tilt in TEM   Beam tilt in aberration corrected TEM
  Wobbler for coma-free alignment with beam tilt   Tilt & shift and their purities/pivot point/rocking point in TEM
  TEM specimen traverse induced by beam tilt
  TEM specimen traverse induced by specimen tilt
  Maximum achievable sample-tilt-angle in TEM   Beam tilt with dark-field deflection coils
  Specimen quality depending on sample tilting in FIB    
  Responding time of phonon emission for electron irradiation   Responding time of Auger electron emission for electron irradiation
  Responding time of SE emission for electron irradiation   Responding time of photon emission for electron irradiation
  Time to electromigration-induced failures   Time constant/peaking time/shaping time of EDS amplifier
  EDS acquisition time    
  EELS of tin (Sn)
  Extinctions and weak spots showing in electron diffraction patterns of tin (Sn)   Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)
  La2CuSnO6   SiSn
  Sn-based metallic-glass alloys    
  Doped and undoped BaTiO3   CaTiO3
  Atomic-number contrast of Ti ions   Doped and undoped strontium titanate (SrTiO3 )
  Lanthanum titanate (LaTiO3)   Superlattice of SrTiO3 and LaTiO3
  TMO6 (e.g. TiO6) octahedral lattice
  Titanium in ICs
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)   PbTiO3
  Titanium nitride (Ti2N/TiN)   Al/Ti/W/TiN stack used for VLSI
  X-Ti phase diagrams   TiO2
  TiCl4-Ether complex   Ti-W alloy
  CuxZryTiz   Ti-based metallic-glass alloys
  EDS and WDS measurements of titanium   EELS of titanium
  C49-C54 titanium disilicide (TiSi2)   Ti5Si3 and Ti5Si4
  Problems limiting applications of titanium silicides into Si devices   Agglomeration in titanium silicide films
  Cu/TiN/TiSi2/Si Contacts     
Tomographic properties of SEM and dual-beam techniques Top-entry and side-entry lens in TEM systems
Top-entry type EDS detector Top-entry goniometer stages/holders in TEMs/STEMs
  Topographic contrast (sharpness) depending on beam energy in SEM   Topographic contrast (sharpness) affected by the detector position in SEM
Total correction function Trace, major, minor elements in materials
  Trajectory of secondary electrons   Trajectories of electron in electron lenses
  Trajectories of incident high-energy electrons in materials    
  Transducer of light to electrical signal    
  Martensitic transformation    
  PVC (passive voltage contrast) of transistors   Gate in transistors
  Misleading IR-OBIRCH signals from circuits with transistors   Laser stimulation of parasitic body diode of transistors in IR-OBIRCH measurements
Transmitted electron beam intensity in TEM Transmission probability of secondary electrons across surface potential to vacuum
  Metal-insulator transition (MIT) with change of temperature   Interband transitions
  Transition probability from initial state to final state   Possible electron transitions giving rise to characteristic X-rays 
  EELS transitions   AES transitions
  Driving force for the phase transition in materials   Dipole transitions in electron excitations
  Transition temperatures of multiple phases    
  Glass transition of metallic glasses   Reduced glass transition temperature
Transition metal
  Transition metals in Periodic table     TMO6 octahedral lattice
  3d transition metal   Transition-metal complexes
Translational symmetries (Space group)
  Glide planes   Screw-axis
  Electron traps in electron microscopy (EM)-related system   Deep level traps and charged defects in materials
  Trapping pumps/Entrainment pumps    
Transverse spherical aberration Trench structures
Triangular lattice  
  1 point group   -1 point group
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups            
P1 (1) P-1 (2)            
  HRTEM and electron diffraction of crystals with trigonal symmetry   Indexing of trigonal and hexagonal systems
  321 point group   -3m1 point group
R-centered lattices/R-centering & its space groups          
R3 (146) R-3 (148) R32 (155) R3m (160) R3c (161) R-3m (166) R-3c (167)  
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P3 (143) P31 (144) P32 (145) P-3 (147) P312 (149) P321 (150) P3112 (151) P3121 (152)
P3212 (153) P3221 (154) P3m1 (156) P31m (157) P3c1 (158) P31c (159) P-31m (162) P-31c (163)
P-3m1 (164) P-3c1 (165)            
Triple twinning  
Troubleshooting of EELS/GIF measurements  
  Gain variations   High energy loss
  Thin TEM/STEM specimen   Troubleshooting related to GIF software and hardware
  No GIF images/spectra    
Troubleshooting of SEM imaging
  Source of secondary electrons   Source of Backscattering Electrons
  Tungsten deposition by FIB   Shell occupancies and binding energies of the electron shells in W
  Emission of characteristic X-rays in tungsten    
  Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)   Niobium tungsten oxides
  Ternary tungsten oxides   Al/Ti/W/TiN stack used for VLSI
  PbxNb1.17W1.0O5.93+x   EELS measurement of tungsten (W)
  X–W phase diagrams   AlxWy
  Tungsten in ICs   WSix
  Tungsten nitride (WNx)   EDS and WDS measurements of tungsten
  Tungsten electron gun
  Comparison between different electron sources/guns
Tunnels in crystals
  Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)
Turbo-molecular pumps (TMPs) Twin condenser lens systems in EMs
  Σ3 grain and twin boundaries in FCC materials   Σ11 grain and twin boundaries in FCC materials
  Σ43 grain and twin boundaries in FCC materials   Σ99 grain and twin boundaries in FCC materials
  Triple twinning   Example of indexing electron diffraction pattern from twins
  Sample thickness determination using CBED   Burgers vector determination of dislocations
  Two-beam dynamical electron scattering/diffraction   Two-beam kinematic electron scattering/diffraction
Two-dimensional (2-D)
  Two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal atomic sheet   Two-dimensional (2-D) lattice
  Difference between axial coma and twofold astigmatism   Twofold astigmatism
  Two-fold axial astigmatism: aberration coefficient C1,2/A1    Aberrations with two fold symmetry
  Twofold superstructure   Twofold axis in crystals
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