Applications of TEM-related Techniques
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -


This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.



The techniques related to TEM systems can be divided into two categories:
         i) Diffraction based techniques such as convergent-beam-electron-diffraction (CBED) and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBD);
         ii) Image based techniques such as high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and dark-field electron holography (HoloDark).

Those techniques have various applications as listed in Table 4311.

Table 4311. Various applications of TEM-related techniques.
Applications in field
Life sciences
Cellular structures, organic fibres, life environment  
Biological field
Medical field
Forensic analysis
Mechanical field
Plastic deformations, ordered alloy structures Phase transformations, morphological (structural) analysis
Defects from the manufacturing process, layers and structures
Materials sciences
Polymeric, metallic, ceramic, composite and nano-structured, nanometric, layers and structures
Identify flaws, fractures and damages to micro-sized objects
Applications of different techniques
Bright Field (BF)/Dark Field (DF)
To p rovide information about size and morphology of particles, and detect crystalline areas, defects, grain boundaries and phases  
High resolution TEM (HRTEM)
Allows lattice fringe imaging, that is directly related to the structure and visualization of defects and interfaces at atomic resolutions  
Electron diffraction (structural)

To obtain crystallographic information such as lattice parameters, crystal symmetry and orientation

Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) (by adding accessories and techniques)
EDS (chemical)
Qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental analysis of the illuminated area with emitted X-rays  
EELS (chemical)
Qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental analysis: analyze the inelastically scattered electrons and thus reveal the information about the bonding between atoms and/or the nearest neighbors  
Energy filtered TEM (EFTEM)
To use the inelastically scattered electrons to create elemental and chemical maps  
Scanning TEM (STEM)
To image by enabling the formation of a small probe of convergent electron beam and scanning over a defined area in the sample  
High angle annular dark field (HAADF)
To obtain Z-contrast images, by selecting the high-angle incoherently scattered electrons  
Provided information
Topographical information
Morphological information
Compositional information
Crystalline information
Scaling information
Applicable resolution
Provide information from micron sizes down to atomic scale and molecular level  
Help fix problems and/or help to make a more durable, efficient product  
Use TEMs for research and studies  






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