Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter F 
 
F-centered lattices/F-centering & their space groups
Orthorhombic              
F222 (22) Fmm2 (42) Fdd2 (43) Fmmm (69) Fddd (70)      
Cubic              
F23 (196) Fm-3 (202) Fd-3 (203) F432 (209) F4132 (210) F4-3m (216) F-43c (219) Fm-3m (225)
Fm-3c (226) Fd-3m (227) Fd-3c (228)          
Others              
Fm-35              
Face pole (plane normal) in electron stereographic projection Face-centered orthorhombic structure
Factors limiting imaging and spectroscopy in TEM
Faraday’s law Faraday cage for probe current measurement in EMs
  Failure analysis of memories   Failure analysis of ICs with FIB
  Efficiency of failure analysis in ICs   Electron beam (EB) application to semiconductor failure analysis
  Chlorine-induced corrosion in wafer fabs   Voids formed in Si at contact interfaces
  Passive voltage contrast (PVC) in FIB and SEM     Failure of static random-access memory (SRAM)
  Spiking/bridging failure in ICs   Junction shorts in ICs
  Void formation and circuit opening due to electromigration in ICs   Short circuit failure due to electromigration
  Over-etch   Mobile charges in SiO2 field insulator in MOS structures
  Thermodynamic stability of metal gate oxides in ICs   Contact failure in ICs
  Copper migration failures in ICs   Electromigration (EM) diffusion of copper
  Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures   IC failure at wafer edge
  Short circuit failure in ICs   Interval scan of electron beam enhancing voltage contrast
  IC failure induced during wafer-grinding   Void detection in ICs
  Identification of soft failure and non visible defects in ICs   Void-formation-induced failure in cobalt silicidation in ICs
  Failure of cobalt silicidation in ICs   TEM specimen requirements in semiconductor industry
  Crystal growth in ICs studied by electron tomography   Etching optimization to suppress IC failure
  Silicon/nitrogen implantation application to suppress IC failure   IC failure induced during wafer packaging and shipping
  IC failure induced during metal etching   Buried defects in ICs
  Missing pattern failure in IC chips   Problems in poly-Si gate in ICs
  CMP scratches   Killer particles causing IC failure
  Non-Ohmic contact failure in ICs   Elemental characterization in physical analysis of IC failure
Failure in IC: corrosion/contamination 
  Carbon contamination in IC chips   Fluorine contamination in IC chips
  Chlorine-induced corrosion/contamination in ICs   Kalium contamination in IC chips
  Oxygen contamination in IC chips   IC-device-pad contamination
  Silicon dust contamination in IC chips    
  Leakage current in MOS structure   Leakage current in gate oxide of MOS
  Leakage current in MOS gate in DRAM circuits    
  Laser Seebeck effect imaging   TIVA
  Micro/Nano-probing   OBIRCH
Failure in IC chips: Physical failure analysis (PFA)
  Goal determination before physical failure analysis   Visual inspection for destructive and/or nondestructive analysis of IC chips
Failure in materials and devices
  Failure modes of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs)   Reasons causing electron filament (gun) failure
  9R structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials     BCC structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials
  <110> tilt twin and grain boundaries in FCC materials   HCP structure at grain boundaries in FCC materials
  Standard indexed diffraction patterns for fcc crystals    Electron diffraction of face centred cubic (fcc) lattices
  fcc-type packing short range ordering of metallic glass   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of FCC crystals   Determination of Burgers vector of fcc lattice defects
 
Fans Fatigue in ferroelectrics
FeCoN  
  FEI TEMs    
Fermi energy of materials Fermi’s Golden Rule
Fe2O3 (hematite/haematite)  
  Analysis techniques for ferroelectric materials   EELS analysis of ferroelectric materials
  Ferroelectric & ferroelastic interactions   Properties of ferroelectric crystals 
  Polar point groups for ferroelectricity   Piezoresponse atomic-force microscopy (PFM)
  Perovskite-like ferroelectrics   Classifications of ferroelectric materials
  Curie-Weiss temperature in ferroelectrics   History of ferroelectricity
  Order–disorder ferroelectrics   Ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs/FRAMs)
  Comparison between different memories   Displacive ferroelectrics
  First-order ferroelectric phase transitions   Second-order phase transitions
  Remanent polarization in ferroelectrics   Direction of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics
  Angle between polarization vectors of adjacent domains in various crystalline phases in ferroelectrics   Polarization in ferroelectrics measured by CBED in STEM mode
  Dielectric constant of ferroelectric crystals   Ferroelectric dielectric hysteresis & hysteresis loop
  Coercive field in ferroelectrics    
  Domain in ferroelectric materials   Strain/stress in ferroelectric materials
  Curie temperature/Curie point in ferroelectrics    
  Degradation/failure in ferroelectrics   Aging in ferroelectrics
  Fatigue in ferroelectrics   Retention & retention loss in ferroelectrics
  Imprint in ferroelectrics    
Ferroelectrics: Physical failure mechanisms
  Stability of ferroelectrics related to oxygen vacancies    
  Curie temperature/Curie point in ferromagnetics    
Fibers 
  Infrared optical fibers   Fiber/biprism filament in Möllenstedt–Düker biprism for off-axis electron holography
 
Field Effect Transistor (FET) preamplifier in EDS systems Field astigmatism in EMs
Fifth-order aberration correction Fifth-order 6-fold astigmatism & its corrections
Five (5)-fold rotational symmetry  
Field lines
  Magnetic field lines    
Field of view
  Aberrations and imaging requirements for small field of view in EMs   Aberrations and imaging requirements for large field of view in EMs
  Off-axial coma and field of view   TEM specimen traverse induced by specimen tilting
  LaB6 filament     Field-emission gun  
  Comparison between different electron sources/guns    
  Comparison between EFG(field emission)-TEMs and CTEMs (LaB6 and tungsten)   Future developments and possibilities of field emission guns
Filters & fitting techniques
  Energy filters to improve energy spread in EMs and EELS   Filters (devices)
  Fourier filtering/masking   Digital-filtered least-squares peak fitting for EDS quantification
  Linear least squares fitting technique   Filter kernels in image processing
 
Fine probe/beam formation in EMs  
  Effect of chromatic aberration on fine structure analysis using EFTEM    
 
Finish-start/right-hand (FS/RH) convention & Burgers circuit  
  Standard FOLZ diffraction patterns for various crystal structures   Shift of HOLZ patterns relative to ZOLZ patterns
 
Fingerprint related contamination in EMs First Bethe approximation/two-beam conditions in TEM measurements
First-order Born approximation/Born series First-order ferroelectric phase transitions
Flashing electron guns First-order phase transitions
Fluctuation microscopy  
Fluorescence
  Secondary X-ray (Fluorescence) in EDS measurements   Viewing screen/fluorescent screen in EMs
Fluorine
  EDS measurement of fluorine (F)   EELS measurement of fluorine (F)
  XPS of fluorine and its related materials   Fluorine contamination in IC chips
  Fluorides    
  CF4 gas   Calcium fluoride (CaF2)
  Ammonium fluorosilicate [(NH4)2SiF6]   XeF2
Flyback time: set flyback time in DigiScan image to avoid image distortion   Focal series of TEM images  
  Focal length of objective lens    Focal point in electromagnetic lenses
 Focus 
  Difference of focus depth for inelastic (core-loss EFTEM) and elastic imaging   Focused convergent incident electron beam
  Marginal ray focus   Paraxial ray focus
  Depth of focus in EM   Focusing properties of electromagnetic lenses affected by aberrations
  Aberration correction through-focus series reconstruction   Line focus in EMs
  Cross-over formed by focusing electron beam   FIB lithography
  Focusing & Defocusing in EMs    
  Introduction of lens/real lens in EMs and FIBs   Dual beam FIB/SEM
  Companies/manufacturers producing FIB instruments   Models of FIB systems
  Examples of FIB specifications   Cryo-focused ion beam (FIB)
  Ion extractor in FIB   Ion channeling on FIB measurements
  Beam suppressor in FIB   Resolution of FIB milling
  Ion irradiation dose   Spray & beam defining apertures in FIB
  Beam blanking deflector in EMs and FIB   Octopole and other lenses in FIB
  Working distance in FIB processes   Sample stage in FIB systems
  Comparison between FIB, electron beam and laser beam techniques   Beam current of FIB
  Liquid-metal ion source (LMIS)   Gallium source in dual beam FIB/SEM & single beam FIB
  Alloy liquid metal ion sources for advanced FIBs    
  Passive voltage contrast (PVC) in FIB and SEM   Active voltage contrast (AVC) in FIB and SEM
  Positive charging case of PVC in FIB and SEM   Voltage contrast in FIB and SEM
  Smallest structures obtained by dual beam SEM/FIB/STEM deposition   Gas-assisted etching in FIB milling
  FIB induced deposition   Charging enhanced electron/ion-beam-induced-deposition
  Sample charging in FIB processes   Secondary electron emission by ion irradiation
  Redeposition of sputtered atoms in FIB   Grain size/boundary determination by FIB
  Tomographic properties of SEM and dual-beam techniques    
  Ionic sputter yield depending on grain orientation   Ionic sputtering yield in FIB
  Milling rate of materials in FIB   Angular dependence of milling in FIB
  Time-efficiency/speed of FIB milling   Vacancy & interstitial generation in FIB milling
FIB-irradiation-induced bending
  Stress-redistribution-induced film bending due to FIB irradiation   Thermo-plastic expansion induced film bending due to FIB irradiation
  Advantages and disadvantages of FIB technology for EM sample preparations   Mounting of TEM grid in grid-holder of FIB system
  Conventional cross-section FIB TEM specimen preparation method   “Lift-out” FIB-TEM specimen preparation technique
  Wedge FIB milling method for TEM specimen preparation   Examples of experimental conditions for FIB specimen preparation
  Ultra-thin TEM specimens prepared by FIB milling   Point defects created in FIB-EM sample preparation
  Rippling effect in FIB-EM sample preparation   Curtaining effect in FIB-EM sample preparation
  Preferential destruction of multilayers in FIB milling   Amorphous layer formed during EM sample preparation using FIB
  Plasma cleaning of FIB prepared specimens   Double cross-sections for examing damage of prepared EM sample surface
  Dopant deactivation induced by FIB sample preparation   Gallium contamination due to FIB milling & in FIB deposits
  Specimen quality depending on sample tilting in FIB   Melting/temperature rise of materials in FIB processes
  TEM lattice fringe affected by FIB damage    
 
Folding/convolution of functions  
  Gjönnes-Moodie extinctions in electron diffraction patterns   Existing of extinction bands within forbiddden reflections in CBED patterns
  Extinctions and weak spots showing in electron diffraction patterns of diamond, silicon, germanium, and Tin (Sn)   Double/multiple diffraction in electron diffraction patterns
Formation
  TEM image formation process    
Four-fold
  Four-fold astigmatism & its measurement and correction   Four-fold rotational symmetry & its axis in crystals
  Fourier (transform/transformation) lens   Additional spots due to inadequate gain normalization (in diffractograms obtained by Fourier transformation)
  Relationship between lens & Fourier transformation   Uneven illumination effect on Fourier transform in TEM
  Fourier filtering/masking   Astigmatism effect on Fourier transform
  Relationship between electron diffraction & image and Fourier transform   Fourier coefficients of electrostatic potential
  Fourier transform of EEL spectra and images   Streaking artefacts in FFTs of TEM images
  Fourier-log method for EELS deconvolution   Fourier-ratio method for EELS deconvolution
  Accuracy of lattice spacing measurements by HRTEM/FFT/electron diffraction   Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of crystalline materials
  Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of amorphous materials   Accuracy of angle measurement in HRTEM and FFT images
 
Frank’s rule in dislocation theory  
Fraunhofer diffraction Frenkel pair
Free-electron and interband transition metals Free-electron metals
Free energy (Gibbs) Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) distribution
  Free volume determination in metallic glasses   Coordination number dependence on free volume in metallic glass
  Free volume change of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures   Analysis of free volume of amorphous materials using electron diffraction
  Free volume change in amorphous materials induced by deformation    
 
Freon and its application in EMs  
  Defocus Affecting Fresnel fringes   Factors affecting Fresnel fringes
  TEM contrast/fringes at interface between two materials   Spatial resolution affected by objective astigmatism
  Overfocus in EMs   Underfocus in EMs 
  Fresnel fringes affected by objective astigmatism and its correction
  Dependence of Fresnel fringes on TEM specimen thickness
  Beam divergence effects on Fresnel fringes   Crossed lattice fringes to form HRTEM images
  Departure from Friedel’s law in CBED patterns    
Fringes
  Fringe spacing in electron holography   Pendellösung fringes in crystals
  Kossel-Möllenstedt (K-M) fringes   Lattice-fringe/structural fingerprinting
  Lattice-fringe visibility & its band & band broadening   Lattice-fringe visibility maps
  TEM lattice fringe affected by FIB damage    
 
Front focal plane of objective lens  
  Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)    
 
Full-frame transfer (FT) CCD Funnels used to fill cold traps with liquid nitrogen for EMs
Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of emitted SE distribution Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction lines
Functions in Gatan digital micrograph