Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter O  
O-rings in EMs  
  Effect of objective lens on object wave function    
Objective apertures 
  Objective apertures in TEMs & STEMs   Optimal objective/Scherzer apertures in CTEM & HRTEM imaging
  Dependence of collection angle on objective aperture in TEM imaging mode    
  Probe-forming/objective aperture for STEM imaging   Virtual objective aperture (VOA) in SEM
  Virtual objective aperture (VOA) in TEM/STEM   Optimal size of virtual objective apertures in STEM and SEM
Objective lens
  Imperfections in objective lenses    
  Alignment of objective lens axis   'Mini' lens
  Objective stigmator/astigmatism correction   Beam alignment between condenser and objective lenses
  Object plane (sample plane) of objective lens   Front focal plane of objective lens
  Objective lens control system in SEMs   Pinhole lens as objective lens in SEMs
  Symmetric immersion lens as objective lens in SEMs   Snorkel objective lens in SEMs
  Benefit of low spherical aberration of objective lens   Astigmatism corrections of condenser and objective lenses in TEM for magnetic materials
  Objective lens iris   Objective polepiece
  Upper- & lower- objective polepiece in TEMs and STEMs   Back focal plane of objective lens in EMs
  Objective lens versus EDS and EELS     Objective pre-field lens
  Effect of objective lens on object wave function   Coupling between aberration corrector and objective lens
  Threefold astigmatism of objective lens in TEM   Phase shift of electrons induced by objective lens
  Objective prefield lens: [1]   Post-fields of objective lens
  Pole piece gaps in EM systems    
Occupied states Octagonal quasicrystal
  Transition metal: TMO6 octahedral lattice    
  Octupole design for Cs corrector in EMs   Octupole lens application in GIF system
  Quadrupole-octupole corrector for Cs corrections   Quadrupole/octupole used for coupling between different lenses in EMs
  Power supplies for quadrupole/octupole aberration correctors   Octopole and other lenses in FIB
Off-axis aberrations in EMs  
  Aberration correction using off-axis electron holography technique   Plane wave and interference pattern in electron holography
  Measurement of electric field/dopant/p-n junction using off-axis electron holography   Measurement of magnetic field using off-axis electron holography
  Spatial coherence/incoherence in EMs   Fiber in Möllenstedt–Düker biprisms for off-axis electron holography
  Reconstruction of off-axis holograms   Interference width in off-axis hologram
  Artifacts in off-axis electron holograms: distortions   Voltage at biprism filament in off-axis electron holography
  Conduction band offset   High tension offset for image filtering for elemental analysis
  Drift tube offset   EELS energy offset
Ohmic contacts in ICs Ohmic contacts in Si-based ICs: historical development
Oil-diffusion Pump Omega filter
One-dimensional (1-D) lattice  
Opening of circuits in ICs
  Void formation and circuit opening due to electromigration in ICs    
  Operation of aberration correctors in EMs   Operation of EDS
  Bias correction of EELS/GIF   Temperature of EELS/GIF detector
  Optimizing EELS acquisition      
Optimal convergence semi-angle in STEM Optimal objective aperture for CTEM & HRTEM imaging
 Operation of TEM system  
  ACD (anti-contamination device) operation on TEM system   Focusing action of lens  
  Optical and electronic interband transitions   Optical/light microscopes 
  Comparison between VEELS and conventional optical spectroscopy   Infra red optical beam induced resistance change (IR-OBIRCH)
Optical imaging sensor  
  Electronic optical imaging sensor    
Optical storage
  Phase change optical storage media   Rewritable phase-change optical memory disks
  Gaussian optics in EMs    Curved optics in EMs
  Optics in electron and ion microscopes   Detailed optics of condenser lens in TEMs/STEMs
  Comparison of electron optics of various filters & spectrometers   Optical axis of microscopes
  X-ray optics   Grazing incidence optics
  Crystallographic orbit    
  Chemical ordering in crystals   Short range ordering (SRO) in materials
  Medium range ordering (MRO) in materials   Long range ordering (LRO) in materials
  Elemental-ordering-induced diffuse streaks in electron diffraction patterns   Order–disorder ferroelectrics
  Determination of crystal orientation   Orientation relationship between two crystals/grains
Ostwald ripening/coarsening of dislocation loops  
  HRTEM imags of orthorhombic crystalline structures   Base-centered orthorhombic structure
  Face-centered orthorhombic structure   Body-centered orthorhombic structures
  Determination of point groups of orthorhombic systems   mm2 point group
  mmm point group   222 point group
A-centered lattices/A-centering & its space groups          
Amm2 (38) Abm2 (39) Ama2 (40) Aba2 (41) A21am (Cmc21, 36)      
C-centered lattices/C-centering & their space groups          
C2221 (20) C222 (21) Cmm2 (35) Cmc21 (A21am, 36) Ccc2 (37) Cmcm (63) Cmca (Abma, Bmab, 64) Cmmm (65)
Cccm (66) Cmma (67) Ccca (68)          
F-centered lattices/F-centering & their space groups          
F222 (22) Fmm2 (42) Fdd2 (43) Fmmm (69) Fddd (70)      
I (body-centered) lattices/I-centering & their space groups          
I222 (23) I212121 (24) Imm2 (44) Iba2 (45) Ima2 (46) Immm (71) Ibam (72) Ibca (73)
Imma (74)              
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P222 (16) P2221 (17) P21212 (18) P212121 (19) Pmm2 (25) Pmc21 (26) Pcc2 (27) Pma2 (Pbm2, 28)
Pca21 (Pbc21, P21ab, 29) Pnc2 (30) Pmn21 (31) Pba2 (32) Pna21 (P21cn, 33) Pnn2 (34) Pmmm (47) Pnnn (48)
Pccm (49) Pban (50) Pmma (51) Pnna (52) Pmna (53) Pcca (54) Pbam (55) Pccn (56)
Pbcm (57) Pnnm (58) Pmmn (59) Pbcn (60) Pbca (61) Pnma/Pbnm (62)    
Osmium (Os) 
  EDS measurements of osmium (Os)    
Outer-shell electrons  
  Via overetch detected by IR-OBIRCH    
  Defocus/overfocus/underfocus in Ronchigrams    
  Bond overlap population diagram (BOPD)    
  Energy peak overlapping in EDS spectrum   Signal overlapping in EELS
Overlay measurement in integrated circuits (IC)  
  X-ray intensity affected by overvoltage   Spatial resolution dependence on overvoltages
  Gate oxides   Oxynitride 
  Metal oxides   Analysis of valence states by white-lines in EELS
  EDS measurement of oxygen   EELS measurements of oxygen (O)
  STEM imaging of oxygen   Oxygen contamination in IC devices
  X-O phase diagram   Oxygen vacancy migration induced by voltage
  O2- coordination and bond strength   Atomic-number contrast of oxygen ions
  Specimen oxidation during EM measurements    
  Cleaning of hydrocarbon contamination by oxygen radicals in EMs   Stability of ferroelectrics related to oxygen vacancies
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