Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter E  
Abundance in Earth's Crust of the elements Eccentricity
  Edge dislocations    EELS edge onset
  EELS background versus edge onset   TEM contrast/fringes at interface/edge between two materials
 EDS (Eenergy Dispersive X-ray Spectra)
  History of EELS technique   Range of energy losses of various EELS signals
  Operation of EELS     Sensitivity/detection limit/minimum detectable mass of EELS
  Density-functional theory (DFT) simulations of EELS profiles   Inelastic scattering from outer-shell electrons shown in EELS profile
  EELS of rare gas solids   Inner-shell excitation in EELS
  Energy dispersion in EELS    EELS signal/intensity affected by collection & convergence angles & apertures 
  Sextupole lens application in GIF/EELS systems   Collection efficiency of EELS
  Energy stability of EELS   Data cube in energy-filtered TEM (STEM) based on EELS
  EELS spectrum energy drift    Spatially resolved EELS (SREELS)
  General thickness requirements of TEM samples for EELS/EFTEM/STEM   Valence electron energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS)
  Multiple/plural scattering in EELS    Unmeasurable energy loss in EELS
  K-edge of 3d transition elements in EELS   EELS of alkali metals
  Electrical resistivity of materials studied by EELS   Dependence of EELS/EFTEM on accelerating voltages of incident electrons
  EELS edge onset   Objective lens versus EDS and EELS
  Cross-section (probability) of inelastic scattering in EELS measurements   EELS signal/intensity dependence on Z-(atomic) number
  Aberration in EELS imaging   EELS analysis of grain boundaries
  Dispersion compensation EELS   Diffraction effects on EELS intensity
  Voltage of incident electrons for EELS measurements    Examples of theoretical interpretations of EELS profiles
  EELS of gaseous atoms and molecules   EELS measurement in diffraction mode
  Shutter used in EELS and EFTEM measurements   EELS & EFTEM measurements in aberration corrected TEMs
  Electronic noise in TEM/STEM/SEM/EELS/EDS systems   Effects of chromatic aberration on EELS
  Effects of defocus on EELS   EELS measurements in TEM imaging mode
  Vibrational spectroscopy in EELS   EELS spectrum energy offset
  EEL spectra/image shift on camera caused by magnetic objects   Drift & jump of EEL spectra or images
  Elemental characterization in physical analysis of IC failure   Measurement of electron probe current with EELS spectrometer
  Dielectric-constant determination by EELS   Comparison between cathodoluminescence and EELS
EELS: Comparisons with other techniques
  Comparison between XAS and EELS   Comparison between EELS and AES
  Comparison between TEELS (EELS) and REELS   Comparison between EDS and EELS
  Comparisons between HRTEM and EELS techniques   Comparison between EFTEM and EELS mapping
  Background subtraction in EELS & EFTEM   Background variation in a single measurement
  Background variation due to composition variation   Background variation due to thickness variation
  Three window method for EFTEM/EELS mapping/quantification   Fourier–log deconvolution in EELS
  Power-law fit: a background fitting model   EELS background versus edge onset
  Band structure (BS) methods used in EELS modeling    
EELS applications
  EELS analysis of ferroelectric materials   EELS analysis of high-k dielectric materials
EELS: three distinct groups of spectral peaks 
  Zero-loss peak   Low energy-loss peaks
  High energy-loss peaks    
  Most possible scattering angle of incident electrons for atomic ionization/energy loss   Cross section of EELS K shell ionization
  Core-loss peak broadening in EELS   Gaussian focus for core-loss EFTEM imaging
  Crystalline phase analysis by EELS core-loss   Periodic table for EELS analysis  
  Elemental analysis by EELS and its limitations    
  Determination of band gap from low-loss spectra in EELS   Study of electronic structure by low-loss EELS
  Analysis of surface plasmon resonances affected by zero-loss peak and energy resolution   Plasmon measurement in EELS
  Dielectric response/function of material valence electrons   Valence electron energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS)
  Crystalline phase analysis by EELS plasmon   Plasmon energy in EELS
  Determination of lattice parameters/strain by plasmon EELS   Applications of plasmon mode in EELS for nanostructures
  Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS (theory)    
  Broadening of EELS zero-loss peak due to phonon scattering   EELS ZLP broadening due to mechanical vibration
  Zero loss extraction in EELS analysis   EELS resolution affected by asymmetry of zero-loss peak
  Zero-loss alignment in EFTEM measurement   Analysis of surface plasmon resonances affected by zero-loss peak and energy resolution
  Modeling of ELNES   Energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) mapping
  Fine structure in EELS   Crystal orientation/diffraction effects on EXELFS of EELS signals
  Coordination number study by ELNES & EXELFS   Study of nearest neighbor distances by EXELFS
  Study of short range order (SRO) by EXELFS   Atomic structure determination by EXELFS
  Study of electronic structure by EXELFS    
  Analysis of white lines in EEL spectrum   EELS analysis of nanometer sized objects
  Effect of chromatic aberration on fine structure analysis using EFTEM   Multiple/plural scattering correction/removal in EELS
  Peak(signal)-to-background ratio in EELS   EELS profile at interface between two thin films
  Applications of EELS technique & comparison of different EELS techniques   Extraction of signal/line intensity in EELS
  Ratio of the L3 to L2 white-line intensity for 3d/4d elements   Useful energy range in EELS measurements
  Deep level states in band gap analyzed by EELS   Shoulder structure in EELS profiles
  Determination of elemental ratio using EELS   Hartree-Slater model for electron excitation modeling & EELS
  Electron beam damage monitored by EELS   Zero loss extraction in EELS analysis
  Fourier transform of EEL spectra and images   Elemental bonding analysis using EELS
  Multiple linear least squares (MLLS) fitting   Determination of band gap from low-loss spectra in EELS
  EELS artifacts/signal weakening due to misalignment of ZLP   EELS artifacts from ultra-thin TEM specimens - surface effects
  Streaking artifacts in EELS images or profiles   EELS artifacts induced by high beam current
EELS artifacts due to crystalline orientation
  Electron channeling effects in EELS measurements   Diffraction effects on EELS intensity
  Crystal orientation/diffraction effects on EXELFS of EELS signals    
EELS calibration
  Error of energy dispersion and its calibration in EELS measurements   Energy calibration of EELS profile
  Optimization of experimental parameters/condition of EELS   Streak imaging technique in EELS measurements
  Diffraction effects on EELS intensity   Examples of TEM sample thickness used for EELS
  Examples of collection and convergence semiangles used in EELS   Dark current and its removal in EELS and EFTEM
  Low electron beam current density to minimize specimen damage in EELS measurements   Conditions to minimize electron-beam-induced reduction of materials in EELS measurements
  Degradation of EELS and EFTEM energy resolution due to binning   Minimum electron dose for sufficient EELS counts
  “Effective” interaction volume for EELS measurements in TEM   Optimizing EELS acquisition
  Difficulties/challenges of EELS measurements   EELS measurements with low-energy incident electrons
  EELS detection of molecularly adsorbed species on surfaces   Carbon contamination effects on EELS measurements
  Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in the EELS Spectrum     Qualitative interpretation of EELS spectra
  Optimized electron beam current for EELS/EFTEM measurements   No GIF images/spectra: troubleshooting
  Gain normalization for EELS measurement   Simultaneous EELS and EDS acquisition
  Comparison of data acquisition times of various techniques    
  Fourier-log method for EELS deconvolution   Fourier-ratio method for EELS deconvolution
  Deconvolution for noise reduction in EEL spectra   EELS energy resolution improvement by deconvolution (energy spread of beam)
  Multiple linear least squares (MLLS) fitting    
  Richardson-Lucy deconvolution   Signal overlapping in EELS
  Curved edge in EELS systems   Single-channel electron detector
EELS spectrometer categories: Two types 
  Serial EEL spectrometer (SEELS)    Parallel EEL spectrometer (PEELS) 
  EELS energy resolution limited by geometric aberration   EELS detection limited by radiation damage
  EELS energy resolutions affected by energy spreading of beam & improved by monochromators   Elemental analysis by EELS and its limitations
  Delocalization in inelastic scattering   Delocalization of EELS measurements
  Poor signal-to-noise-ratio for EELS of nanostructures    
  Selection of energy windows on accuracy of mapping and quantification   Mass-thickness effects on EELS signal/intensity
  Depth sensitivity of REELS & Dependence of depth on primary electron beam energy/incident angle/collection angle   Comparison between TEELS (EELS) and REELS
  EELS resolution affected by beam broadening in TEM specimen   Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by collection angle
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by chromatic aberration   Spatial resolution of EFTEM/inelastic imaging/elemental mapping
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by energy range   Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by spherical aberration
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM affected by specimen thickness   Spatial resolution of EELS in STEM mode
  EELS resolution affected by asymmetry of zero-loss peak    
  EELS spatial resolution depending on specimen thickness   Degradation of EELS spatial resolution due to specimen drift
  Specimen thickness extraction by Kramers-Kronig sum rule   Dependence of EELS signal on TEM specimen thickness
  Energy loss of incident electrons depending on sample thickness    
  Analysis of white lines in EEL spectrum (e.g. L3/L2 ratio)   Analysis of valence states by white-lines in EELS
  L2,3 edges of EELS: white lines for 3d transition metals and their alloys   L2,3 Edges of EELS: White Lines for 4d Transition Metals and Their Alloys
  Efficiency of failure analysis in ICs   Collection efficiency of EELS
  Data cube in energy-filtered TEM (STEM) based on EELS   Gaussian focus for core-loss EFTEM imaging
  Thickness requirements of TEM samples for EFTEM   Energy filtered electron diffractions
  Spatial drift correction in EFTEM imagings   EFTEM imaging of aluminum
  Spectrum focus adjustment in EFTEM   Spatial resolution of EFTEM/inelastic imaging/elemental mapping
  Artifacts in EFTEM images   Iso-chromatic imaging in EFTEM
  Chemical shift detection of elements by EELS and EFTEM   Non-isochromaticity of energy filter
  Correction of electron optical aberrations in EFTEM   EFTEM system and operation principle
  Correction of magnification & its aspect ratio of TEM images   Zero-loss alignment in EFTEM measurement
  Achromaticity correction in EFTEM   Image distortion correction in FETEM
  Vacuum range/efficiency & pump combination
eg & t2g symmetries/states  
Elastic imaging
  Difference of focus depth for inelastic (core-loss EFTEM) and elastic imaging      
 Elastic scattering of incident electrons
  High angle elastic scattering of ions   Intensity and imaging comparison between elastic and inelastic scatterings
  Elastic cross-section of a complex material   Mott differential cross section
  Energy transfer in elastic scattering    Elastic scattering of incident electron with an atomic nucleus 
  Elastic scattering of electrons   Low angle elastic scattering and coherence in TEM
  Elastic scattering of electrons at large angles    Elastic scattering angle & diffraction angle 
  Dependence of elastic scattering on atomic number   Mean free path of electron scattering (elastic and inelastic)
  Mean free path of elastic scattering
Elastic relaxation due to TEM-specimen thinning  
Electric field
  Electric field in electron source/gun   Built-in electric field/potential at material surface due to electron irradiation
  Measurement of electric field using off-axis electron holography   Electric displacement
Electric technology  
  STM holders for EMs   TEM/STEM holders for in-situ electrical biasing
  Electrical failure analysis (EFA)   Electrical overstress (EOS) failure mechanisms
  Electrical resistivity/resistance      
  Effect of grain boundary on electrical properties    
  High voltage fluctuation/stability in microscopes   Stability of lens currents in EMs
Electroluminescence (EL) technique  
  Void formation and circuit opening due to electromigration in ICs   Short circuit failure due to electromigration
  Electromigration resistance induced by alloying   Activation energy for electromigration (EM)
  Electromigration (EM) diffusion of copper   Grain boundary diffusion mechanism of electromigration in interconnects in ICs
  Interfacial diffusion mechanism of electromigration in interconnects in ICs   Retarding electromigration
  Grain size dependence of electromigration-induced failures   Mean time to failure (MTTF)
  Median time to failure (MTTF) to electromigration   Mean time between failures (MTBF) to electromigration
  Time to electromigration-induced failures   In situ SEM observation of electromigration
  Oxygen vacancy migration induced by voltage    
Electron traps in electron microscopy (EM)-related systems  
  Periodic table for electron affinity    
  Electron channelling   Valence electrons
  Radius of path of electrons/charged particles in a magnetic field   Comparison between X-rays and energetic moving electrons
  Electron atomic scattering factors   Wave properties of charged particles
  Interaction between incident electrons and matters   Core electrons
  Electron density (in solids) measured by EELS   Mechanical, electron and ion probe diameters
  Camera length in EBSD   Kikuchi lines in EBSD
  Sample preparation for EBSD analysis   Spatial resolution & depth sensitivity of EBSD
  History of EBSD development   EBSD detector
  Comparison between CBED and EBSD   EBSD pattern formation
  Zone axes in EBSP for EBSD   Band identification in EBSD
  Pattern center determination in EBSD   EBSD analysis
  Kikuchi pattern contrast of EBSD depending on amorphous layer on surface     
 Electron beam (e-beam)
  Effects of electron beam current/intensity changes   Electron beam convergence angle and coherence
  Wave function of focused probe in STEM/SEM   Electron dose of electron beam
  Incident electrons interacting with electrons in solids   Incident electrons interacting with nucleus in solids
  Gaussian distribution of electron beam intensity/probe tail   Tilt of electron beam in EMs
  Variation of electron beam current in EM columns   Electron-beam-tilt-induced coma in TEM
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM   Beam divergence effects on Fresnel fringes in TEM
  Electron beam (EB) application to semiconductor failure analysis   Instability in accelerating voltage of electron beam
  Electron beam lithography (EBL)   Comparison between FIB, electron beam and laser beam techniques
  Electron beam flooding/beam shower to eliminate contamination effects in EMs    
  Electron beam absorbed current (EBAC)/resistive contrast imaging (RCI)   Electron beam induced current (EBIC)
  Amorphization of materials induced by e-beam Pt deposition   Charging enhanced electron/ion-beam-induced-deposition
  Smallest structures obtained by dual beam SEM/FIB/STEM deposition    
  Instability/variation of electron gun emission   Stability of lens currents in EMs
Electron crystallography
  Electron crystallography of proteins    
  Electron capture detector (ECD) in EELS system    
  Backscattered electron detectors   Semiconductor detectors
  Backscattered electron detector in TEM/STEM   Everhart-Thornley (ET) detector
  Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED)   Diffraction analysis in TEM
  Intensity of diffracted electron beam in TEM   Comparison between X-ray (XRD) and electron diffractions
  Broadening of diffraction peak & phonon-electron scattering   Broadening of diffraction intensities depending on grain size
  Diffraction of thick TEM specimen   Diffraction spots originated from multiple atoms
  Relrod – a thin film diffraction effect in TEM   Number of diffraction spots formed on screen/detector in TEM
  Precession electron diffraction (PED)   Diffraction intensity in precession electron diffraction
  Diffraction contrast in TEM images  

Electron diffraction formation: Bloch-wave approach

  Advantages of electron diffractions   Diffraction & aberration 
  Diffraction analysis of small area or nanoparticles   TEM sample thickness determination through diffraction
  Probe shift in TEM system when switching between diffraction and other modes   Electron diffraction of face centred cubic (fcc) lattices
  HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction of hexagonal symmetry   HRTEM and electron diffraction of crystals with trigonal symmetry
  Diffraction intensity distribution in reciprocal lattices   Overall electron diffraction and Kikuchi lines depending on TEM sample thickness
  Accuracy of lattice spacing measurements by HRTEM/FFT/electron diffraction   HRTEM images & electron diffraction of amorphous metallic glasses
  Zone-axis diffraction (ZAP) patterns   Microdiffraction pattern/shadow image/Ronchigram in STEM
  Electron spot/beam size and shape limited by diffraction   Double/multiple diffraction in electron diffraction patterns
  Interference between direct and diffracted beams in TEM   Coherence between diffracted electron beams in TEMs
  Relationship between electron diffraction & image, and Fourier transform   Two-beam dynamical electron scattering/diffraction
  Two-beam kinematic electron scattering/diffraction   Integrated reflection coefficient
  Projector lenses and image/diffraction distortion in EMs   Relationship between diffraction group and point group
  Standard SOLZ diffraction patterns for various crystal structures   Comparison of lens conditions between TEM diffraction and TEM imaging modes
  Laue‘s diffraction condition   Radial distribution function from electron diffraction patterns
  Purity of Z-contrast in HAADF-STEM (removing diffraction contrast)   Focus of electron diffraction in TEM
  Shape of electron diffraction spots   Crystal orientation/diffraction effects on EELS signals
  Determination of primitive unit cell by electron diffraction   Halo feature in electron diffraction patterns
  Kinematically diffracted electron and X-ray beams & their intensities   Electron diffraction pattern depending on electron wavelength/voltage
  Debye-Scherrer rings in electron diffraction patterns   Relationship between electron diffraction patterns and stereographic projections
  Calibration of electron diffraction patterns   EELS measurement in diffraction mode
  Strain/stress in materials and diffraction   Rotation method for three dimensional (3D) electron diffraction recording
  Determination of crystal structures using electron diffraction technique   Gatan Orius SC200D CCD camera
  Diffraction variation due to beam tilt in TEM   Diffraction variation due to TEM sample tilt
  Extra electron diffraction spots from perovskite crystalline structures    
Electron diffraction: satellite reflections
  Main and satellites reflections in electron diffraction patterns   Modulation/satellite reflections due to mutually commensurate mismatch
  Asymmetric electron diffraction patterns   Phonon effect on electron diffraction patterns
  Diffraction pattern formed in imaging condition/image plane/objective plane   Diffraction spot and disk in diffraction patterns
  Diffraction spot and disk in diffraction patterns   Inaccuracy/artifacts in electron diffraction and spurious intensities
  Angle between normals to planes/in electron diffraction pattern   Visibility of electron diffraction
Electron diffraction: Standard indexed diffraction patterns
  Standard indexed diffraction patterns for bcc crystals     Standard indexed diffraction patterns for fcc crystals  
  Standard indexed diffraction patterns for hcp crystals      
Electron diffraction pattern symmetries
  HRTEM and electron diffraction of crystals with trigonal symmetry   Square symmetry in electron diffraction patterns
  Rectangular symmetry in electron diffraction patterns   HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction of hexagonal symmetry
Electron diffraction patterns of various materials
  Analysis of interatomic spacing of amorphous materials using electron diffraction   Analysis of free volume of amorphous materials using electron diffraction
  Electron diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials   Diffraction patterns of silicon (Si)
  Diffraction patterns of cobalt disilicide (CoSi2) and cobalt silicide (CoSi)   Electron diffraction patterns of amorphous carbon
  Misfit layer chalcogenides    
Electron diffraction: streaks, splitting and diffuse scattering of electrons in TEM
  Diffuse diffraction streaks in electron diffraction from columnar substructures   Energy filter applied to observation of thermal-diffuse streaks in electron diffractions
  Streaks formed by smearing/blooming in CCD camera   Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder
  Elemental-ordering-induced diffuse streaks in electron diffraction patterns   Phase-induced splitting of reflections in electron diffraction patterns
  Streaking of diffraction spots due to thin structures in TEM specimens    
  Diffractogram background in TEM   Contribution of partial temporal coherence to diffractograms
  Contribution of partial spatial coherence to diffractograms   Contribution of mechanical vibrations to diffractograms
  Contribution of specimen thickness to diffractograms   Contribution of specimen drift to diffractograms
  Contribution of transfer properties of detector to diffractograms   Diffractogram vs spatial resolution
  Effect of random distribution of atom positions on diffractograms   “Ghost Feature” in 2-D diffractograms
  Noise intensity of diffractograms   Additional spots due to inadequate gain normalization (in diffractograms obtained by Fourier transformation)
  Diffractogram intensity of thin amorphous TEM specimen   Diffractogram intensity spectra in TEM measurements
  Diffractogram & phase Contrast Transfer Function (pCTF)   Diffractogram in FE-TEMs
  Diffractogram in CTEM with LaB6 or W electron guns   Aberration measurement method based on diffractogram
  Correction of astigmatism of objective lens in TEM based on diffractogram    
  Energy filter applied to observation of weak reflections in electron diffractions   Energy filter applied to observation of Kikuchi lines and bands
  Improvement of CBED analysis by energy filter    
Electron diffraction:  Weak spots
  Weak spots related to superstructures in electron diffractions   Effect of screw axis on electron diffraction patterns
  Coefficients of elastic backscattering electrons   Coefficients of inelastic backscattering electrons
  Secondary electron emission coefficient     Dependence of emission coefficient of secondary electrons on atomic number and accelerating voltage of incident beam
Electron–hole (e–h) pair 
  Electron–hole (e–h) pair generation due to energetic beam irradiation   Thermal e-h Pair
Electron holography  
Electron lenses
  Rotationally symmetrical electron lenses/magnetic field    
  Techniques in electron microscopes    
  Column of electron microscopes   Operations of electron microscopes
  Comparison between optical and electron microscopes   Optics in electron and ion microscopes
  EM analysis of biological materials   Vacuum levels and UHV (ultra-high vacuum) in EMs
  EM companies in stock markets   Speed considerations in EM analyses
 Electron microscopy (EM) image analysis
  Highlight bright features in EM images    
  Specimen preparations for SEM observation and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA)    
Electron Relaxation
  Electron relaxation and Auger electron    
  Electron relaxation and X-Ray   Electron relaxation and light/cathodoluminescence
 Electron scattering
  Electron scattering with phonons   Energy dependence of electron scattering
  Energy of electron beam through TEM specimen   Energy resolution of EDS
  Electron scattering within TEM specimen   Electron scattering within SEM specimen
  Incoherent electron scattering (not-in-phase)   Compton scattering of electrons
  X-ray generation by scattering of incident electrons   Kinematic scattering of electrons

Electron scattering categorized by occurrence probability (three types)

  Single scattering of electrons   Plural scattering of electrons
  Multiple scattering of electrons    
  Electron subshells    
  Field-emission gun   LaB6 filament 
  Tungsten electron gun   LaB6 electron gun
  Lifetime of electron gun   Materials used for electron gun
  Schottky emission electron guns   Cold field emission electron gun
  Wehnelt unit in electron source   Thermionic emission
  Electron gun saturation   Contamination in electron guns in EMs
  Flashing electron guns   Electron beam current noise in EMs
  Charging and discharging in electron guns   Gun-alignment/adjustment and its coil control system
  Emission current in electron guns   Probe/beam current in EMs (TEM, STEM, SEM)
  Heating temperature of electron guns   Reasons causing electron filament (gun) failure
  Vacuum of electron source/gun   Bias electrode in electron guns
  Electrostatic gun lens in EMs   Electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA)
  Measurement of electron beam/probe current    
  Large electron source   Small electron source
  Electron beam distortion   Evaluation of probe size in EMs
  Electron beam drift in TEMs   Spatial coherence/incoherence of electron source
  Instability/variation of electron gun emission   Brightness of electron gun
  Partial coherence of electron source   Plane wave of electron beam
  Monochromatic electron source in EMs   Electron beam convergence in TEM
  Electrons emitted at low & high angles from electron guns   Temporal coherence/incoherence of electron source
  Solid angle of electron source (in electron gun)    Thermo-ionic cathode for electron gun (thermal FEG)
  Energy distribution/spread/width of electron sources   Electron-gun high-voltage power supply in EMs
Electron beam distortion   Electron energy in electron beams in EMs
Electron dose inducing material damage in bulk and at sample surface Electrons passing through magnetic lens 
Electron spectroscopy  Electron spectroscopy imaging (ESI)
Electron wavefunctions    
Electron velocity/wavelength/high voltage  
Electron inelastic mean free path of elements and compounds  
  Electronic technology   Electronic optical imaging sensor
  Electronic noise in TEM/STEM/SEM/EELS/EDS systems    
  Study of electronic structure by EXELFS   Study of electronic structure by low-loss EELS
  Electronic point defects   Electronic and optical interband transitions
  Electrostatic charging in EMs   Electron motion in electrostatic and magnetic fields
  Electrostatic shutter in EMs   Electrostatic gun lens in EMs
  Castaing-Henry (C-H) magnetic prism/electrostatic mirror   ESD (electrostatic discharge) failure of CMOS technology
Electropolishing for TEM sample preparation Emission Microscopy (EMMI) for failure analysis in ICs
  Energy of backscattered electrons   Energy of secondary electrons
  Energy spread of electron beams in EMs    Extra energy in crystals introduced by dislocations
  Incoherence/energy spread in SEM imaging   Energy level diagrams for single atoms, dimers, clusters & bulk materials
  EELS energy resolution improvement by deconvolution (energy spread of beam)   Diatomic bond strength/bond energy
Energy change of incident electron after passing specimen Energy band of solids
 Energy dispersion
  Energy dissipation of primary electrons (PE) in materials   Energy dispersion in EELS
  Error of energy dispersion and its calibration in EELS measurements   Dispersion compensation EELS
Energy filter in EMs
  Omega filter     Wien filter  
  Comparison of electron optics of various filters & spectrometers   Post-column energy filters & spectrometers
  In-column energy filters & spectrometers    
Dopant energy levels in crystalline silicon Energy gap in solids
Energy loss function (ELF) in interaction of incident electrons with materials  
  Energy resolution of EELS and experimental requirements   EELS energy resolution improvement by deconvolution
  Methods for improving EELS energy resolution   Analysis of surface plasmon resonances affected by zero-loss peak and energy resolution
  Effects of entrance aperture/collection angle on EELS and optimization    
Energy/wavelength of moving electrons in vacuum Energy stability of EELS
  CFM56 engines    
Environmental SEM Environment/room/installation of EM systems
Environmental/In Situ TEM/STEM observations   
  Energy transfer for atomic displacement/knock-on process due to electron irradiation   Energy transfer due to elastic scattering 
 Energetic beam irradiation induced phenomena
  Excitation of the valence-band electrons due to energetic beam irradiation    
  Effects of entrance aperture/collection angle on EELS and optimization   Hole mask/entrance mask in GIF system
  Detector envelope function in EM imaging   Spatial coherence envelopes
  Temporal-coherence envelope function    
  Lattice-mismatched epitaxial alloy   SiGe/Si system and its defects
  Quality of epitaxial layers    
Equivalent circuit diagrams
  Equivalent circuit diagram of PVC in FIB and SEM    
Equivocal space groups  
Escape depth
  Maximum escape depth of X-rays    Maximum escape depth of secondary electrons
Escape peak in EDS/X-ray profiles  
  Etching/sputtering threshold energies by energetic electron & ion beams   Etching of III-V/compound semiconductor materials
  Etching optimization to suppress IC failure    
  Etchants used in semiconductor manufacturing    
Eucentric height 
  Standard focus/Eucentric height versus sample tilt in TEM   Eucentric height of specimen in TEM and its adjustment
  Wobbler for finding Eucentric height of specimen in TEM    
 Europium (Eu)
  Eu1-pCr2X4-p (X = ˆS, Se)    
Eutectic point  
  Vacuum evaporator in EMs    
Excitation of electrons
  Excitation of the valence-band electrons due to energetic beam irradiation   Critical excitation energy
  Excitation of inner-shell electrons    
EXELFS (extended energy loss fine structure) Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)
  Success of EM experiments    
  {311} defects   Stacking faults
  Dislocation loops    
  Charging in electron microscopes (EMs)   Mechanical vibration effects on EMs
  Nonuniform magnetic properties of pole-piece material   Fluctuation of stray magnetic fields
  Vacuum contamination in EMs    
  Extinction distance   Electron extinction distances of various materials 
  Dynamical extinction lines in CBED patterns   TEM sample thickness determination by thickness fringes: extinction distance
Exit wavefunction & intensity from STEM specimen  
Exit plane/object wave function from TEM specimen Expenses of EM and its related systems and services
Extra diffraction spots in TEM diffraction patterns Experts in the field of electron microscopies
Excitation coefficient for plane wave incidence Extraction voltage in electron source
Extractor of ions in FIB  
  Excitation error and Ewald sphere in CBED    
  Exposure/acquisition time limited by instabilities in EELS and EFTEM   Binning versus saturation/exposure time in CCD camera
  Ewald sphere and excitation error in CBED