Electron microscopy
 
Bond Strength/Bond Energy
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In chemistry, bond energy is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. This energy is required to break a single bond for a mole of a specific substance. The bond energy can be directly related to the bond length (or called bond distance). Most bond energies are in the range between 100 and 1000 kJ/mol. The bond energy should not be confused with bond-dissociation energy. Table 1823a lists the range of bond energies for different bondings, and Table 1823b lists the strengths of some diatomic bonds. Strong bond are > 800 kJ/mo, while weak bonds are < 200 kJ/mol.

Table 1823a. Range of bond energies for different bondings.

Bond Covalent bonding Ionic bonding Van der Waals bonding
Energy range (kJ/mol) 100 – 475 450 – 1000 2 – 10

Table 1823b. Diatomic bond strength. (1 kJ/mol = 0.010364512 eV/bond, or convert with excel file)

Bond energy
Bond Temperature (°C) Bond Length (Å) Substance examples
kJ/mol eV/bond
86.6   Pb-Pb      
100 1.036 In–In      
108.78   Te–C      
125.6 1.302 Bi–Te      
  1.309 Sb-Sb     Ge17Se68Sb15[1]
138.1   Te–Te     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
141.0   Ge–Sb     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
142 1.472 O–O 0    
148.5   Ge–Te     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
149 1.544 I–I 0   I2
151.9±10.5   In-Sb      
155 1.606 F–F 0    
157.32   Ge–Ge     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
  1.631 Ge-Ge     Ge17Se71Sb12[1]
163 1.690 N–N   1.47  
  1.724 Ge-Sb     Ge17Se74Sb9[1]
167 1.731 N–N 0    
170.4 1.766 Se–Bi      
175 1.814 Sb–Sb      
175 1.814 Br–I 0    
  1.906 Se-Sb     Ge17Se77Sb6 [1]
183.68   Sb-Se     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
184 1.907 K–H      
184.096   Se–Se     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
184 ± 16   Fe–CO –273   η5-Cyclopentadienyl dicarbonyl iron anion
184.933   Te–Se     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
  1.908 Se-Se     Ge17Se80Sb3 [1]
185   Ge–Ge      
188 ± 16   Fe–CO 25   η5-Cyclopentadienyl dicarbonyl iron anion
190 1.970 O–F 0    
190 1.969 Br–Br 0    
193 2.000 Br–Br     Br2
195 2.021 Sb–Te      
195   Se–Te      
200   As–As      
200   Ge–Te      
201 2.083 N–O 0 1.44  
201 2.083 P–P 0    
201 2.083 O–Br 0    
201 2.083 O–I 0    
202 2.094
Na–H      
204 2.114 O–O   1.48  
204.6±8.8   H–Ti      
205   As–Te      
205.4344   Ge–Se     (Ge2Sb2Te5)0.9Se0.1 [4]
  2.144 Ge-Se     Ge17Se83 [1]
206.91 2.145 Ge–Se      
208 2.156 Cl–I 0    
213 2.208 C–I 0    
216 2.239
Cl–Br 0    
218 2.259 O–Cl 0    
218 2.259 S–Br 0    
218.0±17.0   In-Te      
220   Se–Te      
220   Si–Te      
222 2.301
Si–Si 0    
222±17   O–F      
225   Se–Se      
225   P–P      
226 2.342 S–S 0    
230   As–Se      
230   Sb–S      
230   Ge–Se      
238 2.467 Li–H      
240 2.487 Cl–Cl 0    
240   P–Se      
243 2.519 N–Br 0    
247 2.560 As–H     AsH3
249 2.581 F–Cl 0    
249 2.581 F–Br 0    
251   Pb-Te      
255 2.643 S–Cl 0    
255   S–Se      
259.8   Te-Te      
260   As–S      
263.6   Ge-Ge      
265   Ge–S      
266 2.757 S–S      
269.0±20   O–Cu      
270   P–S      
271 2.809 S–Cl      
272 2.819 C–S 0    
274 2.840 Ga–H      
275   Sb–Sb      
277.4   Sb-Te      
277.8 2.879 H–Cu      
278 2.881 F–I 0    
280   S–S      
283 2.933 N–F 0    
284 2.944 S–F 0    
285 2.954 C–Br 0    
295 3.058 H–I 0    
295 3.058 Cl–Cl     Cl2
297±96   N–Al      
<299.2   H–Si      
299.2   Sb–Sb      
301 3.120 C–Si     1.86
305 3.161 C–N 0 1.47  
313 3.244 N–Cl 0    
318 3.296 H–Si 0    
318 3.296 C–Si 0    
322 3.337 H–P 0   PH3
327 3.389 C–Cl 0    
338.3 3.506 C–H      
<340   H–N      
340 3.524 Si–Si      
343 3.555 N–F      
346 3.586 C–C 0 1.54  
358 3.710 C–O 0 1.43  
358 3.710 Na–OH      
359.8   Sn–Te     Sn-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 [3]
361 3.710 K–OH      
362 3.742 H–Br 0    
363 3.752 H–S 0    
363 3.762 H–I     HI
368 3.814 Si–O   1.61  
376 3.897 Cs–OH      
376 3.897 O–Te      
376 3.897 C–C     CH3CH3
377 3.907 C–C     Ethane
379 3.928 Ba–OH      
386 4.0007 H–N 0    
391 4.0525 H–N     NH3
397±29   C–Cl      
340 3.5239 B–H      
397   Ge-Te     Ge2Sb2Te5
405 4.1976 Mg–OH      
411 4.2598 H–C 0    
413.4±13   F–Cu      
414.2   Ge–Te      
415 4.301 Sr–OH      
418 4.332 N=N   1.24  
418±14   C–Y      
421 4.363 C–H     Ethane
423±29   C–Ti      
427±23.8   C–V      
427.6 4.43186 H–O      
428 4.436 H–Cl 0   HCl
432 4.477 H–H 0   H2
434.0 4.498 O–Sb      
439 4.55 C–H     Methane
442 4.581 Ca–OH      
444 4.601 In–F      
444±13   C–Ce      
447 4.6329 Li–OH      
450 4.664 N=N     N2H2
451.5 4.6795 C–Si      
452 4.6847 Si–O 0    
459 4.757 H–O 0    
456   Ge-Te     Ge2Sb2Te5
461.9±5.0   F–Mg      
462±20   C–La      
464 4.809 C–H     Ethylene
464.8 4.817 F–Mo      
469 4.8609 S=O     SO3
470±15   N–Si      
472 4.892 Be–OH      
476.1±33.1   N–Ti      
477.4±17.2
  N–V      
481±15.9   C–Mo      
481±63   N–Y      
485 5.0267 C–F 0    
492 5.099 H–O      
498 5.1615 O=O   1.21  
502 5.20298 Al–O      
513.4±8   C–P      
532 5.5139 S=O     SO2
540±25   C–Hf      
552 5.721 C–F      
552.7±2.1   F–Si      
558 5.783 C–H   1.06 Acetylene, HC≡CH
561±25   C–Zr      
564.8±25.1   N–Zr      
565 5.8559 H–F 0 1.56 HF
569±13   C–Nb      
569±33   F–Ti      
571±3   O–Al      
573±13   F–Ta      
580.0±3.8   C–Rh      
581 6.0217 B–S      
590±63   F–V      
>594   C–Os      
598±5.9   C–Pt      
605.0±20.9   F–Y      
607 6.291 N=O   1.20  
607±21   C–C      
611±84   N–Ta      
612 6.343 C=C   1.33  
615 6.374 C=N   1.27  
616.2±10.5   C–Ru      
617.1±20.9   N–P      
630.57±0.13   N–O   1.15 Nitric Oxide
650±15   F–Hf      
659.0 6.830 O–Ge      
663.6±6.3
  F–Al      
682 7.0685 C=C     C2H4
720 7.462 C=C     CH2CH2
728 7.545 C=C     Ethylene
754.3±10   C–N      
782 8.105 C=O     H2CO
799 8.281 C=O   1.23 CO2
799.1 8.282 O–Ta      
800 8.2916 Si–O      
820 8.4988 C≡C   1.20  
891 9.23478 C≡N   1.15  
941 9.753 N≡N   1.10  
946 9.8048 N≡N     N2
965 10.0018 C≡C   1.20 Acetylene, HC≡CH
1072 11.111 C≡O   1.13  

Table 1823c. Mean bond energies of some materials.

Mean bond energy Temperature (°C) Substance
kJ/mol eV/bond
  1.915   Se79Te20Sb1[2]
  1.919   Se78Te20Sb2[2]
  1.930   Se76Te20Sb4[2]
  1.943   Se74Te20Sb6[2]
  1.974   Se70Te20Sb10[2]
  2.257   Ge17Se83 [1]
  2.297   Ge17Se80Sb3[1]
  2.341   Ge17Se77Sb6[1]
  2.388   Ge17Se74Sb9 [1]
  2.438   Ge17Se71Sb12[1]
  2.491   Ge17Se68Sb15[1]
221.35 2.294   Se79Te20Sb1[2]
221.70 2.2978   Se78Te20Sb2[2]
222.40 2.305   Se76Te20Sb4[2]
223.10 2.312   Se74Te20Sb6[2]
224.50 2.327   Se70Te20Sb10[2]
377 3.907   Bi2Te3
407     Sb2Te3
422   0 Bi2Se3

 

 

[1] Parikshit Sharma, V. S. Rangra, S. C. Katyal , Pankaj Sharma, Compositional dependence of physical parameters in Ge17Se83-xSbx (x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15) glassy semiconductors, Optoelectronics And Advanced Materials – Rapid Communications, 1 (8), 363 – 367 (2007).
[2] Balbir Singh Patial, Neha, Nagesh Thakur, S. K. Tripathi, Study of the Physical Properties with Compositional Dependence of Sb Content in Se-Te-Sb Glassy System , International Journal of Advanced Research in Physical Science (IJARPS), 1 (7), 2014, 9-16.
[3] N. Bai, F.R. Liu, X.X. Han, Z. Zhu, F. Liu, X. Lin, N.X. Sun, A study on the crystallization behavior of Sn-doped amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 by ultraviolet laser radiation, Applied Surface Science 316 (2014) 202–206.
[4] J. Bicerano and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 74, 75 (1985).

 

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