Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter I 
I (body-centered) lattices/I-centering & their space groups
I222 (23) I212121 (24) Imm2 (44) Iba2 (45) Ima2 (46) Immm (71) Ibam (72) Ibca (73)
Imma (74)              
I4 (79) I41 (80) I-4 (82) I4/m (87) I41/a (88) I422 (97) I4122 (98) I4mm (107)
I4cm (108) I41md (109) I41cd (110) I-4m2 (119) I-4c2 (120) I-42m (121) I-42d (122) I4/mmm (139)
I4/mcm (140) I41/amd (141) I41/acd (142)          
I23 (197) I213 (199) Im-3 (204) Ia-3 (206) I432 (211) I4132 (214) I-43m (217) I-43d (220)
Im-3m (229) Ia-3d (230)            
Ice formation in EM observations Icosahedral short-range ordering
Icosahedral quasicrystals (IQCs)  
Ideal/perfect lenses in EMs III-V compounds
  Illumination in TEM mode   Illumination in STEM mode
  Imaging geometries of TEM and STEM systems   Coherent illumination in EMs
  Parallel illumination in EMs   Electron beam convergence
  Effects of axial illumination conditions in TEM system   Maximum usable illumination angle in STEM
  Uneven illumination effect on Fourier transform in TEM   Effects of illumination coherence on spatial resolution in TEMs
  Illuminating spot size & intensity changed by condenser lens    
  Image-forming lens system in (S)TEM systems   Image curvature in EMs
  TEM image formation/imaging process   Image-forming Cs-corrector
  Image quality in EMs   Image helical rotation and inversion when changing magnification or focusing
  Image sensors/Electronic optical imaging sensors   Image spectroscopy/imaging spectrum (IS)
  Minimization of image drift and other instabilities     Young’s fringes produced by TEM image shift (with and without monochromator)
  Aberration determinations by image shift due to tilting illumination   Image-shift function and its lens in TEM
  Diffraction pattern formed in imaging condition/image plane/objective plane   Electron wavefunction in image plane in real space and reciprocal space
  TEM spatial resolution improved by defocus series    
Imaging conditions
  Best TEM imaging conditions    
  In-lens (immersion lens/through-the-lens) SEM detectors   Symmetric immersion lens as objective lens in SEM systems
  Symmetric immersion lens as objective lens in SEMs    
Impact parameter  
  Silicon/nitrogen implantation application to suppress IC failure   Defects in crystals formed by ion-implantation and annealing
Imprint in ferroelectrics  
In-focus in TEM imaging In-column energy filters & spectrometers
In-line electron holography In-line/Gabor’s holography
  Chromatic aberration and its coefficient   Incoherence/energy spread in SEM imaging
  Incoherent electron scattering of electrons (not-in-phase)   STEM/TEM imaging with incoherent electrons
  Incoherence & HAADF    
Incoherent coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundary Incommensurate phases
Incomplete charge collection in EDS measurements  
Index of refraction Index of refraction of electron lenses
  Indexing Kikuchi lines   Indexing SAD (selected area diffraction) patterns
  Indexing CBED patterns   Indexing HOLZ patterns
  Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures   Miller indices
  Phase identification with XRD and its procedure   Indexing electron diffraction patterns starting with zone axis  
  Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of HCP crystals   Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of FCC crystals
  Low index planes   Zone axis determined by cross-product
  Examples of indexed electron diffraction patterns of rhombohedral crystals   Example of indexing electron diffraction pattern from twins
  AlGaInP   InN
  InP   InAs
  Compound semiconductor   Phase diagram of In-X
Indirect aberration corrections  
Indirect interband transition Indirect bandgap
Inelastic scattering mechanisms:
         i) Phonon excitation (heat).
         ii) Plasmon excitation (valence electrons).
         iii) Single electron excitation (inner and outer shell scattering).
         iv) Direct radiation losses (Bremsstrahlung radiation).
         v) Excitation of conducting electrons leading to secondary electron emissions.
  Inelastic scattering from outer-shell electrons shown in EELS profile   Angle of inelastic scattering
  Cross-section for inelastic scattering in EELS measurements   Electron inelastic differential cross section
  Delocalization in inelastic scattering   Spatial resolution of inelastic signals
  Intensity comparison between elastic and inelastic scatterings   Theory on inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons
  Dependence of inelastical scattering of electrons on atomic number   Dependence of single and multiple inelastical scatterings of electrons on TEM sample thickness
  Mean free path of electron scattering (elastic and inelastic)   Inelastical phonon excitation and thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) of electrons in EMs
Inelastic imaging 
  Difference of focus depth for inelastic (core-loss EFTEM) and elastic imaging      
  Information limit/transfer in HRTEM      
Information loss in measurements
  Information loss in HRTEM measurements    
  Infrared optical fibers   Infrared windows
  Challenges of IR-OBIRCH detections   Misleading IR-OBIRCH signals from circuits with transistors
  Misleading IR-OBIRCH signals induced by defects in other circuit blocks   Laser stimulation of parasitic body diode of transistors in IR-OBIRCH measurements
  Via overetch detected by IR-OBIRCH   Artificial OBIRCH signal caused by dynamically functional devices in ICs
  Near infrared   Far infrared
  Lock-in IR-OBIRCH   Streaking artifacts in TIVA and OBIRCH images
Inner-shell electron
  Inner-shell excitation in electron energy loss spectroscopy   Ground-state energy of inner-shell electron
  Excitation of inner-shell electrons    
  History of In Situ/environmental TEM/STEM observations   Vacuum sealed electron transparent windows for in-situ TEM
  Thermal-diffuse-scattering in in-situ heating HAADF-STEM    
In-situ heating in TEM
  Black-white diffraction contrast due to formation of loops & defect clusters   In-situ TEM observations of chemical processes
In situ observations
  In situ observation in optical microscopes   In situ observation in cathodoluminescence imaging
  In situ SEM observation of electromigration   In Situ liquid TEM/STEM analysis
  Metal-insulator transition (MIT) with change of temperature   SEM observation of structures underneath insulators
  Specimen (stage) drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs   Electron beam drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs
  Instability of TEM imaging due to charging   Instability of electron gun emission
  Instability in accelerating voltage of electron beam    
Installation/room/environment of EM systems Integrated reflection coefficient
Integrated circuits
  Scaling in IC designs   Selection of substrate direction for ICs
  Intensity of electron wave in specimen depth   Kinematically diffracted electron and X-ray beams & their intensities
  Intensity of transmitted electron beam in TEM   Intensity of diffracted electron beam in TEM
  Intensity distribution in the CBED disks   Intensity distribution of HRTEM image
  Intensity & amplitude of scattered wave by atoms   Intensity comparison between elastic and inelastic scatterings
  Diffractogram intensity spectra in TEM measurements   Diffractogram intensity spectra of thin amorphous TEM specimen
  EDS intensities and their ratio collected by detector   Maximum intensity of plasmon energy loss peak
  Diffraction intensity distribution in reciprocal lattices   Intensity/counts of EELS
  Intensity of bremsstrahlung X-rays: Kramers' law   Intensity of characteristic X-rays
  Interaction constant/parameter (between incident electrons and specimen)   Energy loss function in interaction of incident electrons with materials
  Interaction between incident charged particle and matter    
  Dynamical theory for energetic electron-matter interaction   Incident electrons interacting with electrons in solids
  Interaction between incident electron beam and atomic nuclei      
  Interaction volumes for generation of secondary electrons   Interaction volumes for generation of Auger electrons
  Interaction volumes for generation of backscattered electrons   Interaction volumes for generation of characteristic X-rays
  “Effective” interaction volume for EELS measurements in TEM   Interaction volumes for generation of continuum X-rays
  Interaction volumes for generation of secondary fluorescence (X-rays)   Effects of beam-specimen interaction volume on CBED
Interatomic spacing of materials
  Analysis of interatomic spacing of amorphous materials using electron diffraction    
  Interband transition strength   Direct interband transition
  Indirect interband transition   Interband plasmon peak energy
  Free-electron and interband transition metals    
  Bamboolike microstructure in interconnects in ICs   Grain boundary diffusion mechanism of electromigration in interconnects in ICs
  Interfacial diffusion mechanism of electromigration in interconnects in ICs   Barriers for copper interconnections
  Current density scaling of interconnects in ICs    
  Difference of atomic structure between surface, interface, and bulk   Interface between two crystals
  Investigation and quantification of elemental segregation at interface   TEM contrast/fringes at interface between two materials
  Interfacial diffusion mechanism of electromigration in interconnects in ICs   EELS profile at interface between two thin films
  Interfacial defects in materials   Interface analysis by TEM/STEM
Interfacial angles of cubic crystals  
  Plane wave and interference pattern in electron holography   Coherence of electron beam/interference pattern in STEM/Ronchigram
  Interference between direct and diffracted beams in TEM   Interference width in off-axis hologram
  Elements with possible X-ray interferences in EDS   Film thickness determination by X-ray reflectivity/interference
Intergrowth compounds Interline transfer (IT) CCD
Intermediate/diffraction lens International/Hermann-Mauguin notations for symmetry elements
International technology roadmap for semiconductors International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
Interplanar crystal spacing of the seven crystal families Internet & World Wide Web (website) for electron microscope and materials
 Interpretation of EM data
  Atomic number (Z)-contrast Imaging on STEM    Poor TEM sample quality limiting data interpretation
  Interpretation of TEM/STEM Images    
  Vacancy & interstitial generation in FIB milling    
  Center of inversion (center of symmetry, i)   Image helical rotation and inversion when changing magnification or focusing
  IBr   ICl
  High angle elastic scattering of ions   Optics in electron and ion microscopes
  Mechanical, electron and ion probe diameters   EDS measurement of ion (Fe)
  Focused ion beam (FIB)   Scanning helium ion microscopy (SHIM or HeIM)
  Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)   FIB (ion beam) induced deposition (IBID)
  Secondary electron emission by ion irradiation   Ion sources for FIB
  Grain growth induced by FIB milling   Chemical changes induced by ion beam irradiation
  Intermetallic phase formation induced by ion beam irradiation    
Ion getter pumps  
 Ion irradiation
  Ion irradiation induced secondary electron emission    Secondary electron emission from metal surfaces by ion irradiation
  Ion irradiation dose   High-energy-particle irradiation on materials
  Comparison between ionic, covalent, and metallic materials   Atomic & ionic radii and valence states of chemical elements
  Radius ratio rule    
 Ionic sputtering
  Ionic sputtering yield in FIB   Ionic sputter yield depending on grain orientation
  Ion milling for TEM sample preparation   Milling rate of materials in FIB
  Ionization energy/threshold   Mean ionization energy (potential) of complex materials
  Ionization cross section   Examples of ionization cross sections of chemical elements
  Critical ionization energy   Ionization energy/dopant energy levels of impurities in Si
  Momentum transfer of incident electrons after atomic ionization/energy loss   Radiation ionization energy to form electron-hole pairs in materials
  Penning gauge/(cold cathode) ionization gauge    
Ionization damage in EMs
  Ionization damage (radiolysis) by incident electrons processes (mechanisms)   Shape of ionization edge/core-loss edge in EELS
  Most possible scattering angle of incident electrons after atomic ionization/energy loss    
  Shape of ionization edge/core-loss edge in EELS   Fine structure of ionization edges in EELS
  Intermetallic phase formation induced by ion beam irradiation   Interaction between incident electron beam and atomic nuclei  
  Apple products: iPhone, iPad, & iPod touch, Apple watch & MacBook    
  EDS/x-rays of iron (Fe)   C-doped Fe/carbon in iron
  Ni-doped Fe/nickel in iron   Steels
  Iron (Fe) shroud in electromagnetic lenses   TMO6 octahedral lattice
  Fe-based metallic-glass alloys   FePt alloys
  Non-isochromaticity of energy filter    
Isoplanatic approximation Iterative wave function reconstruction for image series reconstruction with TEM