Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter S 
 
Salary and job positions for electron microscopists  
Sample for EMs  
  Sample requirements for high resolution atomic-number contrast HAADF imaging   SEM samples
  TEM samples     Carbon supports for EM analysis
  Sample stages/holders in EMs and FIB    
 Sample-tilt in TEM
  Sample-tilt induced effects in TEM   Diffraction variation due to TEM sample tilt
Sapphire: Al2O3  
Satellites
  Main and satellites reflections in electron diffraction patterns   Modulation/satellite reflections due to mutually commensurate mismatch
Saturation
  Electron gun saturation   Binning versus saturation/exposure time in CCD camera
Saturation of CCD camera
  Binning versus saturation/exposure time in CCD camera   Smearing/blooming in CCD
  Streaks formed by smearing/blooming in CCD camera   Streaking of diffraction spots due to thin structures in TEM specimens
       
 
Savitzky-Golay filter  
Scaling
  Current density scaling of interconnects in ICs   Scaling of CMOS-FET
  Scaling in IC designs    
 
Scan speed/Dwell time in TEM/STEM imaging  
  Sc2O3    
  Electron-beam scanning/deflecting coil control system in EMs   Scanning coils in EELS/GIF systems
  Comparison between backscattered electron & secondary electron imagings   Comparison of TEM and SEM
  Advanced/atomic/high resolution/latest SEMs    
  Contrast in SEM Images     Charging of electrically isolated materials in SEM
  EELS measurements in EMs with low-energy incident electrons   Cs correction in SEM
  Active voltage contrast (AVC) in FIB and SEM   Low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM)
  Negative charging case of PVC in SEM   Passive voltage contrast (PVC) in FIB and SEM
  Positive charging case of PVC in FIB and SEM   Schematic diagram of SEM systems
  SEM observation of structures underneath insulators   Virtual objective aperture (VOA) in SEM
  Objective lens in SEMs/STEMs     Objective polepieces in EMs
  Tilt of electron beam in EMs   Bias/voltage in SEM for SE and BSE separations
  Incoherence/energy spread in SEM imaging   SEM spatial resolution affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam
  Tomographic properties of SEM and dual-beam techniques   Wave function of focused probe in STEM/SEM
  X-ray detector & EDS comparison in SEM/TEM/STEM   Desktop/portable/tabletop SEM
  Dual beam FIB/SEM   Manufacturers/companies producing FIB & EM instruments
  Cryo-focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM)   Effect of hydrocarbon in SEM observation
  Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs   Development history of SEM technique
  Effect of amorphous layer on contrast of high resolution/HRSEM images   HRSEM image contrast as function of crystal tilt
  SEM resolution affected by delocalization of inelastic scattering    
 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sample and its preparation 
  Advantages and disadvantages of FIB technology for EM sample preparations   Curtain effect in FIB-EM sample preparation
  Nanoparticles sample   Double cross-sections for examination of damage of prepared EM sample surface
  Plasma cleaning of FIB prepared specimens   Sample preparation for EBSD analysis
  Alignments    
 
Scanning helium ion microscopy (SHIM or HeIM)   
  Piezoresponse atomic-force microscopy (PFM)    
  Scanning-tunneling microscope (STM)    
Scattering  
  Weak scattering in some materials in TEM observations   Most possible scattering angle of incident electrons for atomic ionization/energy loss
  Dependence of scattering of incident electrons on scattering angle   Angular-resolved electron scattering
  Scattering potential of crystal   Electron atomic scattering factors
  X-ray atomic scattering factors    
 
Scattering vector/transferred wave vector after electron scattering with matter Schrödinger equation
Scherzer  
  Scherzer defocus   Scherzer expression/resolution/limit
  Scherzer theorem   Ronchigram at Gaussian/Scherzer focus
  Scherzer phase plate    
  Optimal objective/Scherzer apertures in CTEM & HRTEM imaging   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
 
Schoenflies notations of point groups  
Schottky emission electron guns Schottky effect
  Scintillator-photomultiplier (PM) system    Ce-doped yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) 
  Electron backscattering from scintillator in EMs   Scintillating material
  Scintillator-coupled CCD camera    
  Effect of screw axis on electron diffraction patterns    
 
Screw dislocations  
Scripts for Gatan Digital Micrograph   Scroll vacuum pumps
 
Second-order phase transitions  
Second-order aberration corrections Secondary electron detector in TEM/STEM
  Standard SOLZ diffraction patterns for various crystal structures    
  Application of SEs other than electron microscopy    Disadvantages and harm of SE in some cases 
  Dependence of emission coefficient of secondary electrons on atomic number and accelerating voltage of incident beam   SE1/SE2 ratio (between different types of secondary electrons) affected by energy of primary electron beam
  SE emitted from TEM thin film    Escape depth of secondary electrons
  Separating BSEs from SEs in SEM   Trajectory of secondary electrons
  Secondary electron energy spectroscopy   Redistribution and redistribution rate of SEs
  Kinetic energy of secondary electron   EDS signal affected by secondary and backscattered electrons
  Collection efficiency of secondary electrons in SEM   In-lens (immersion lens/through-the lens) SEM detectors
  Everhart-Thornley (ET) detector   Lateral detectors in SEM
  Contrast dependence on detector position   Backscattered electron detector
  SE yield (emission coefficient) in SEM    Dependence of emission coefficient of secondary electrons on Z
  Constant-loss approximation on process of secondary electron generation   Emission depth of secondary electrons
  Mechanisms and processes of secondary electron generation and SE imaging   Responding time of SE emission after electron irradiation 
  Source of secondary electrons in SEM     Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of emitted SE distribution
  Energy & most probable energy (MPE) of secondary electron emission   SE yield depending on accelerating voltage of primary electrons
  Secondary electron emission from metal surfaces by ion irradiation    
 
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Secondary X-ray (fluorescence) in EDS measurements
Sector magnet spectrometer SEE (secondary electron emission)
Seebeck effect imaging (laser) SE3 (third type of secondary electrons) in SEM
Segmental Ronchigram autocorrelation function matrix (SRAM) for aberration correction Seignette salt/Rochelle salt (NaKC4H4O6•4H2O)
 Segregation at interfaces
  Investigation and quantification of elemental segregation at interface    
  Comparison between CBED and SAD (selected area diffraction)   Selected area diffraction (SAD) aperture
  Indexing SAD (selected area diffraction) patterns    
Selenium (Se) 
  A1-pCr2Se4-p (A =ˆ Ba, Sr, Eu, Pb)   Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)
  MgSe   ZnSe
  CdSe    Cu2ZnSnSe4 
 
Self-absorption of outgoing X-ray in EDS measurements   
  Semiconductor device performances   Compound semiconductor
  Nitride semiconductors   Semiconductor detectors 
  TEM specimen requirements in semiconductor industry   International technology roadmap for semiconductors
  Etchants used in semiconductor manufacturing    
Sense vector  
  Sensitivity/minimum detectable mass of EELS    Sensitivity/minimum detectable mass of EDS 
  Identification of soft failure and non visible defects in ICs   Sensitivity of thermal laser stimulation methods in EFA
  Electronic optical imaging sensors/Image sensors    
 
Separating BSEs from SEs in SEM Serial EELS spectrometer 
Service and sales of EM systems Sextupole/hexapole  
  Triclinic crystals   Monoclinic crystal systems
  Orthorhombic lattices   Tetragonal crystal
  Trigonal crystals (Rhombohedral crystals)   Hexagonal crystal systems
  Cubic crystals    
Seven crystal families (others)
  Matrix of the seven crystal families in real and reciprocal spaces    Symmetry groups for the crystal systems
  Interfacial angles of crystals of the seven crystal families   Spacing of lattice of the seven crystal families
 
Shadowing contrast in SEM Shadow image/Ronchigram/microdiffraction pattern/Azimuthal and radial circles in STEM
Shape 
  Shape of electron diffraction spots   Shape memory alloys
  Shape of ionization edge/core-loss edge in EELS   Shape of X-ray peak in EDS measurements
 
Sharpen filter in image processing  
Sharpness
  Topographic contrast (sharpness) depending on beam energy in SEM   Topographic contrast (sharpness) affected by the detector position in SEM
Shear stress
  Screw dislocation formation due to shear stress    
Shifts
  Chemical shift due to molecule formation   TEM specimen traverse induced by specimen tilting
  Shift of HOLZ patterns relative to ZOLZ patterns   Gun-alignment coil control system/gun shift and tilt in EMs
  Shift of probe in TEM system when switching different modes   Phase shift from defocus and spherical aberration
  Probe shift in TEM system when switching between STEM and other modes   Shift of electron beam
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced image displacement in TEM   Electron-beam-tilt-induced coma in TEM
  Tilt & shift and their purities/pivot point/rocking point in TEM    
  Chemical shift detection of elements by EDS   Peak position shift in EDS
  EEL spectra/image shift on camera caused by magnetic objects   Chemical shift detection of elements by EELS and EFTEM
Shipping
  IC failure induced during wafer packaging and shipping    
  Thermodynamic stability of metal gate oxides in ICs   Short circuit failure due to electromigration
  Short failure in IC devices detected by passive voltage contrast (PVC)    
  Analysis of short-range properties of materials   Icosahedral short-range ordering
  Study of short range order (SRO) by EXELFS   HRTEM images of atomic short-range ordering in crystals
  TEM sample preparation for atomic short-range ordering analysis   Free volume in metallic glasses
  TEM analysis of short range ordering in amorphous materials   fcc-type packing short range ordering of metallic glass
  Short-range-orderings dependence on coordination number in metallic glasses   bcc-type packing short range ordering of metallic glasses
  bct-type packing short range ordering of metallic glasses   Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis
 
Shoulder structure in EELS profiles  
  Shuffle transformation
   
  Electrostatic shutter in EMs   Shutter used in EELS and EFTEM measurements
 
Side-entry and top-entry lens in TEM systems   Side-entry goniometer stages/holders in TEMs/STEMs
Side wall in integrated circuits (IC) Sigma (σ) bond
Signals 
  Signal-to-noise ratio increased by binning in CCD cameras   Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the EELS spectrum  
  Dependence of signal types on sample thickness in EMs   Signal-to-noise ratio in TEM/STEM images
  Single crystalline silicon   Amorphous silicon
  Polycrystalline silicon   Si-based metallic-glass alloys
  Atomic-number contrast of silicon ions   EELS measurement of silicon
  Diffraction patterns & crystallography of silicon (Si)   Silicon oils from diffusion pump
  EM analysis of silicon   EDS/x-rays of silicon (Si)
  Stacking faults, twins and dislocations in silicon   Si-X phase diagrams
  Extinctions and weak spots showing in electron diffraction patterns of silicon   Stress distribution around silicides
  Lithium-drifted silicon diodes & Si(Li) EDS detectors   Ionization energy/dopant energy levels of impurities in Si
  Silicon nitride (SiNx) support/container for EM analysis   Thermal oxidation of silicon
  Silicon/nitrogen implantation application to suppress IC failure   Silicon dust contamination in IC devices
  Ammonium fluorosilicate [(NH4)2SiF6]   Si Kikuchi pattern & strain measurement  
  Local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS)   Solid solubility of various impurities in silicon
  Silicon (Si) alloying anodes in lithium batteries    
  Comparison of various X-ray spectrometers   Development history of silicon drift detectors
Silicon-related materials
  SiGe/Si system & its defects   WSix
  TaSiNx   Polycrystalline silicon in solar cells
  SiC   Silicides/silicidation in ICs
  Copper (Cu) with dielectric diffusion barrier SiCxNy   TiSix
  Cu/TiN/TiSi2/Si contacts    PtSi in ICs
  HfSiO4   Copper silicide
  Silicon nitride (Si3N4 & SixNy)   Cobalt disilicide (CoSi2) and cobalt silicide (CoSi)
  Ca3Al2Si3O12    
  Nickel silicide (Ni2Si/NiSi/NiSi2)   SiSn
  Silicon dioxide/quartz/SiO2 analysis by EM-related techniques   SiO2 application in ICs
  SEM observation related to SiO2    
  Sputtering/etching of silver from electron irradiation in EMs   EELS measurement of silver (Ag)
  Silver in ICs   Phase diagram of silver-X
  Ag-based metallic-glass alloys    
 
SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) Simple cubic crystals
Simulation/modeling 
  Simulation of electron optics   EM image simulations at high spatial resolutions
  Software examples for EM-related simulations    Stobbs factor in TEM imaging 
  Simulation of HAADF-STEM images    
  Multislice simulation (MS) of TEM images   Bloch wave approaches for simulating TEM images
 
Simultaneous EELS and EDS acquisition  
Single atom  
  Single atom detection of EELS   Energy level diagrams for single atoms, dimers, clusters & bulk materials
  Single scattering distribution (SSD) & EELS deconvolution    
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by energy range    
 
Single particle analysis in TEM tomography  
Six-fold axis in crystals Sixfold symmetries in EMs
Size
  Dimension/size of EMs   Size of EDS detector in EMs
  Size of aperture   Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs
 
Slip/glide planes and slip/glide directions Slow scan charge-coupled device (SSCCD) camera
Small circles in Wulff Net Small electron source
Smallest structures obtained by dual beam SEM/FIB/STEM deposition Smearing/blooming in CCD
Smoothing filters Snorkel objective lens in some SEM systems
  Sodium chloride (NaCl)    
  NaNbO3   Seignette salt/Rochelle salt (NaKC4H4O6•4H2O)
Soft failure: Identification of soft failure and non visible defects in ICs Soft collision between charged particle and atom
Soft X-rays  
Software
  Software for EDS spectrum acquisition and analysis   NSS EDS software
  Polycrystalline silicon in solar cells   Best research-cell efficiencies for solar cells
Solenoids   
  Angular distribution/emission angle of secondary electron in SEM   Solid angle of electron source (in electron gun) 
  Solid angle of secondary electron detection in SEM   Collection angle/solid angle of EDS detector
  Distance effect on solid angle of EDS detector    
  Materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)   Carbon deposition/contamination in SOFCs
 
Solid immersion lens in thermal laser stimulation techniques
Source of backscattering electrons in SEM
Solid state detectors (SSDs) for EDS Source of secondary electrons in SEM  
Solubility
  Nitrogen solubility in materials   Solid solubility of various impurities in silicon
  Solid solubility of various impurities in germanium   Solid solubility of various impurities in carbon/diamond
 
sp2 hybridization sp3 hybridization
 Space-charge
  Space-charge effect in electron beam    
Space group: Introduction
  Crystallographic space group notations/description    
  Unit cell   Centering translations
  Point group   Translational symmetries
  Determination of space group   Patterson space group
  d-spacing ratios of allowed Bragg reflections for some space groups   Space group/crystal structure depending on substitution concentration
  Crystal structure & space group of compounds   Centrosymmetric space groups
  Non-centrosymmetric space groups   Chiral space groups
  Equivocal space groups   Unequivocal space groups
230 space groups in seven crystal families
A-centered lattices/A-centering & its space groups (only one crystal family)
Orthorhombic              
38: C2v14: Amm2, Am2m, Anc21, Bmm2, B2mm, Cm2m, C2mm 39: C2v15: Abm2, Ab2m, Acc21, Bma2, B2am, Cm2a, C2ma, C2mb 40: C2v16: Ama2, Am2a, Ann21, Bbm2, B2mb, Cc2m, C2cm 41: C2v17: Aba2, Ab2a, Acn21, Ac2a, Bba2, B2ab, Cc2a, Cc2b, C2ca, C2cb 36: A21am, Cmc21, A21ma, Bb21m, Bm21b, Cbn21, Ccm21      
C-centered lattices/C-centering & their space groups (only two crystal families)
Monoclinic              
5: C23: C2, A112, A2, B112, F2, I2, I21 8: Cs3: Cm, Am, Im 9: Cs4: Cc, Aa, An, A11a, B11b, Cn, Fd11, Ia, Ic 12: C2h3: C2/m, A112/m, A2/m, B112/m, C2/a, C2/m11, F2/m, I112/m, I2/m 15: C2h6: A2/a, C2/c , A112/a, A2/n, B1121/b, B112/b, B112/n, C2/c11, C2/n, F2/d, I112/a, I112/b, I2/a, I2/c, I2/n, I21/a, I21/c      
Orthorhombic              
20: D25: C2221, A2122, B2212, C212121 21: D26: C222, A222, B222, C21212 35: C2v11: Cmm2, A2mm, Bm2m, Cba2 36: C2v12: Cmc21, A21am 37: C2v13: Ccc2, A2aa, Bb2b, Cnn2 63: D2h17: Cmcm, Amam, Amma, Bbmm, Bmmb, Cbnn, Ccmm 64: D2h18: Cmca, Abma, Bmab, Abam, Acam, Bbam, Bbcm, Cbnb, Ccma, Ccmb 65: D2h19: Cmmm, Ammm, Bmmm, Cban
66: D2h20: Cccm, Amaa, Bbmb, Cnnn 67: D2h21: Cmma, Abmm, Bmam, Cbab 68: D2h22: Ccca, Abaa, Bbab, Cnnb          
F-centered lattices/F-centering & their space groups (only two crystal families)
Orthorhombic              
22: D27: F222, F212121 42: C2v18: Fmm2, Fbc21, Fca21, Fm2m, Fnn2, F2mm 43: C2v19: Fdd2, Fdd21, Fd2d, F2dd 69: D2h23: Fmmm, Fbca, Fcab, Fnnn 70: D2h24: Fddd      
Cubic              
196: T2: F23 202: Th3: Fm-3, Fm3 203: Th4: Fd-3, Fd3 209: O3: F432 210: O4: F4132 216: Td2: F4-3m, F-43m 219: Td5: F-43c 225: Oh5: Fm-3m, Fm3m
226: Oh6: Fm-3c, Fm3c 227: Oh7: Fd-3m, Fd3m 228: Oh8: Fd-3c, Fd3c          
I (body-centered) lattices/I-centering & their space groups (only three crystal families)
Orthorhombic              
23: D28: I222 24: D29: I212121 44: C2v20: Imm2, Im2m, Inn21, I2mm 45: C2v21: Iba2, Ib2a, Icc21, Ic2a, I2aa, I2cb 46: C2v22: Ima2, Ibm2, Ib2m, Im2a, Inc21, I2am, I2cm, I2ma, Pn2a 71: D2h25: Immm, Innn 72: D2h26: Ibam, Ibma, Iccn, Imaa, Imcb 73: D2h27: Ibca, Icab
74: D2h28: Imma, Ibmm, Imam, Imcm, Innb              
Tetragonal              
79: C45: I4 80: C46: I41 82: S42: I-4 87: C4h5: I4/m 88: C4h6: I41/a 97: D49: I422 98: D410: I4122 107: C4v9: I4mm
108: C4v10: I4cm 109: C4v11: I41md 110: C4v12: I41cd 119: D2d9: I-4m2 120: D2d10: I-4c2 121: D2d11: I-42m 122: D2d12: I-42d 139: D4h17: I4/mmm
140: D4h18: I4/mcm 141: D4h19: I41/amd 142: D4h20: I41/acd          
Cubic              
197: T3: I23 199: T5: I213 204: Th5: Im-3, Im3 206: Th7: Ia-3, Ia3 211: O5: I432 214: O8: I4132 217: Td3: I-43m 220: Td6: I-43d
229: Oh9: Im-3m, Im3m 230: Oh10: Ia-3d, Ia3d            
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups (all the seven crystal families)
Triclinic              
1 : C11: P1, C1, I1 2: Ci1: P-1, A-1, B-1, C-1, F-1, I-1            
Monoclinic              
3: C21: P2, P112 4: C22: P21, B21, C1121, P1121, P2111 6: Cs1: Pm 7: Cs2: Pc, Bd, C11a, Pa, Pn, P11b, P11n 10: C2h1: P2/m 11: C2h2: P21/m, B21/m, P1121/m 13: C2h4: P2/c, C112/b, P112/a, P112/b, P112/n, P2/a, P2/c11, P2/n 14: C2h5: P21/c, B21/a, B21/c, B21/d, P1121/a, P1121/b, P1121/n, P21/a, P21/b11, P21/c11, P21/n, P21/n11
Orthorhombic              
16: D21: P222 17: D22: P2221, P2122, P2212 18: D23: P21212, P21221, P22121 19: D24: P212121 25: C2v1: Pmm2, Pm2m, P2mm 26: C2v2: Pmc21, Pb21m, Pcm21, Pm21b, P21am, P21ma 27: C2v3: Pcc2, Pb2b, P2aa 28: C2v4: Pma2, Pbm2, Pc2m, Pm2a, P2cm, P2mb
29: C2v5: Pca21, Pbc21, P21ab, Pb21a, Pc21b, P21ca 30: C2v6: Pnc2, Pb2n, Pcn2, Pn2b, P2an, P2na 31: C2v7: Pmn21, Pm21n, Pnm21, Pn21m, P21mn, P21nm 32: C2v8: Pba2, Pc2a, P2cb 33: C2v9: Pna21, P21cn, Pbn21, Pc21n, Pn21a, P21nb 34: C2v10: Pnn2, Pn2n, P2nn 47: D2h1: Pmmm 48: D2h2: Pnnn
49: D2h3: Pccm, Pbmb, Pmaa 50: D2h4: Pban, Pcna, Pncb 51: D2h5: Pmma, Pbmm, Pcmm, Pmam, Pmcm, Pmmb 52: D2h6: Pnna, Pbnn, Pcnn, Pnan, Pncn, Pnnb 53: D2h7: Pmna, Pbmn, Pcnm, Pman, Pncm, Pnmb 54: D2h8: Pcca, Pbaa, Pbab, Pbcb, Pcaa, Pccb 55: D2h9: Pbam, Pcma, Pmcb 56: D2h10: Pccn, Pbnb, Pnaa
57: D2h11: Pbcm, Pbma, Pcam, Pcmb, Pmab, Pmca 58: D2h12: Pnnm, Pmnn, Pnmn 59: D2h13: Pmmn, Pmnm, Pnmm 60: D2h14: Pbcn, Pbna, Pcan, Pcnb, Pnab, Pnca 61: D2h15: Pbca, Pcab 62: D2h16: Pnma, Pbnm, Pcmn, Pmcn, Pmnb, Pnam    
Tetragonal              
75: C41: P4 76: C42: P41 77: C43: P42 78: C44: P43 81: S41: P-4 83: C4h1: P4/m 84: C4h2: P42/m 85: C4h3: P4/n
86: C4h4: P42/n 89: D41: P422 90: D42: P4212 91: D43: P4122 92: D44: P41212, C41221 93: D45: P4222 94: D46: P42212 95: D47: P4322
96: D48: P43212 99: C4v1: P4mm 100: C4v2: P4bm 101: C4v3: P42cm 102: C4v4: P42nm 103: C4v5: P4cc 104: C4v6: P4nc 105: C4v7: P42mc
106: C4v8: P42bc 111: D2d1: P-42m 112: D2d2: P-42c 113: D2d3: P-421m 114: D2d4: P-421c 115: D2d5: P-4m2 116: D2d6: P-4c2 117: D2d7: P-4b2
118: D2d8: P-4n2 123: D4h1: P4/mmm 124: D4h2: P4/mcc 125: D4h3: P4/nbm 126: D4h4: P4/nnc 127: D4h5: P4/mbm, C4/mmb 128: D4h6: P4/mnc 129: D4h7: P4/nmm
130: D4h8: P4/ncc 131: D4h9: P42/mmc 132: D4h10: P42/mcm 133: D4h11: P42/nbc 134: D4h12: P42/nnm 135: D4h13: P42/mbc 136: D4h14: P42/mnm 137: D4h15: P42/nmc
138: D4h16: P42/ncm              
Trigonal              
143: C31: P3 144: C32: P31 145: C33: P32 147: C3i1: P-3 149: D31: P312 150: D32: P321 151: D33: P3112 152: D34: P3121
153: D35: P3212 154: D36: P3221 156: C3v1: P3m1 157: C3v2: P31m 158: C3v3: P3c1 159: C3v4: P31c 162: D3d1: P-31m 163: D3d2: P-31c
164: D3d3: P-3m1 165: D3d4: P-3c1            
Hexagonal              
168: C61: P6 169: C62: P61 170: C63: P65 171: C64: P62 172: C65: P64 173: C66: P63 174: C3h1: P-6 175: C6h1: P6/m
176: C6h2: P63/m 177: D61: P622 178: D62: P6122 179: D63: P6522 180: D64: P6222 181: D65: P6422 182: D66: P6322 183: C6v1: P6mm
184: C6v2: P6cc 185: C6v3: P63cm 186: C6v4: P63mc 187: D3h1: P-6m2 188: D3h2: P-6c2 189: D3h3: P-62m 190: D3h4: P-62c 191: D6h1: P6/mmm
192: D6h2: P6/mcc 193: D6h3: P63/mcm 194: D6h4: P63/mmc P6m2        
Cubic              
195: T1: P23 198: T4: P213 200: Th1: Pm-3 201: Th2: Pn-3 205: Th6: Pa-3, Pa3, Pb3 207: O1: P432 208: O2: P4232 212: O6: P4332
213: O7: P4132 215: Td1: P-43m 218: Td4: P-43n 221: Oh1: Pm-3m 222: Oh2: Pn-3n 223: Oh3: Pm-3n 224: Oh4: Pn-3m  
R-centered lattices/R-centering & its space groups (only one crystal family)
Trigonal              
146: C34: R3, R3r 148: C3i2: R-3, R-3r 155: D37: R32, R32r 160: C3v5: R3m, R3mr 161: C3v6: R3c, R3cr 166: D3d5: R-3m, R-3mr 167: D3d6: R-3c, R-3cr  
Others              
P105/mmc Pm-35 Fm-35          
Space groups that have not been completely determined
 
Spacers in MOSFET structures  
Spacing
  Reciprocal lattice spacings   Real crystal spacings
  Spacing of lattice of the seven crystal families    
  Spatial coherence/incoherence of electron source   Contribution of partial spatial coherence to diffractograms
  Spatial coherence envelopes    
  Spatial frequency and its band in TEM imaging   Spatial frequencies in STEM imaging
 
Spatial drift & its correction in EFTEM imagings  
  EDS spatial resolution depending on EM sample thickness   Spatial resolution of camera 
  Rayleigh criterion   Spatial resolution of EELS and EFTEM measurements
  Spatial resolutions between various techniques   Spatial resolution of EELS in STEM mode
  Spatial resolution of inelastic signals   Resolution in electron tomography
  Resolution of cathodoluminescence technique    
  Diffractogram vs spatial resolution   Spatial resolution of EFTEM
  Point resolution in EMs   Effect of chromatic aberration on spatial resolution in EMs
  Spatial resolution of SEM   Spatial resolution of microscopes
  Spatial resolution for light microscopes   Spatial resolution in EDS technique
  Spatial resolution of STEM   Evaluation of spatial resolution in EMs
  EM sample thickness dependence of spatial resolution   Methods for improving spatial resolution in EMs
  Spatial resolution improved by increasing accelerating voltage in EMs   EM image simulations at high spatial resolutions
  Spatial resolutions limited by specimen drifts   Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by chromatic aberration
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by energy range   Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by collection angle
  Spatial resolution of EBSD   Spatial resolution/beam spreading in STEM depending on convergence semiangle
  Spatial resolution/resolving power affected by beam alignments   Spatial resolution affected by objective astigmatism
  Effects of illumination coherence on spatial resolution in TEMs   Resolution of FIB milling
  Spatial resolution in CBED measurements    
  Spatial resolution limit affected by aberrations   Scherzer expression/resolution/limit
  Factors limiting spatial resolution on TEM   Resolution limit due to spherical aberration (Cs)
  Resolution limit due to chromatic aberration (Cc)   Resolution limit of electron microscopes
  Surpassing the resolution limit of EMs   Abbe's equation: resolution limit of microscopes
  Determination of TEM spatial resolution   Effect of configuration of objective polepieces on STEM/TEM spatial resolution
  Methods for improving spatial resolution in EMs   Spatial resolution improved by increasing accelerating voltage in EMs
  Spatial resolution of TEM measured by Young’s fringe   Improvement of spatial resolution using aberration correction in EMs
  TEM spatial resolution improved by defocus series   Improvement of TEM spatial resolution by image series reconstructions
  EM image simulations at high spatial resolutions   Spatial resolution of electron holography
 
Spatially resolved EELS (SREELS) Specific heat and heat capacity of materials
Specifications of EMs
  Examples of FIB specifications    
  Spatial drift correction in EFTEM imagings    
 
Spectrum-imaging (SI) based on EELS by STEM Spectroscopic amplifier in EDS system
Spectrometers 
  Comparison of electron optics of various filters & spectrometers   Serial EELS spectrometer 
  In-column energy filters & spectrometers   Post-column energy filters & spectrometers
  SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry)   Periodic table for EDS and EELS analysis
 
Speed considerations in EM analyses  
  Spherical aberration depending on working distance in SEM   Resolution limit due to spherical aberration (Cs)
  Spherical aberration coefficient (Cs)   Benefit of low spherical aberration of objective lens
  Determination of the spherical aberration and its coefficients   Phase shift from defocus and spherical aberration
  Dependence of Cs and Cc aberrations on accelerating voltage of beam   Negative spherical aberrations
  Longitudinal spherical aberration   Transverse spherical aberration
  Spherical aberration affected by beam alignments   Spherical aberration in STEM
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by spherical aberration   Spherical aberration rings in Ronchigram
  Cs correction in SEM   Cs correction in TEM
  Probe-forming Cs-corrector in STEM   Image-forming Cs-corrector
  Interaction between chromatic and spherical aberration corrections   Ronchigram comparison between Cs-corrected and uncorrected STEM conditions
  Third-order spherical aberration correction    Coupling between aberration corrector and objective lens
  Multipole design for Cs correctors in EMs   Hexapole/sextupole/dodecapole design for Cs corrector in EMs
  Dipole design for Cs corrector in EMs   Quadrupole design for Cs corrector in EMs
  Octupole design for Cs corrector in EMs    
Spin 
  Melt-spinning    
 
Spinel (MgAl2O4)  
Spherical projection Spiking/bridging failure in ICs
Splitting 
  Phase-induced splitting of reflections in electron diffraction patterns   Splitting of HOLZ lines in CBED patterns
  Direction of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics   Polarization in ferroelectrics measured by CBED in STEM mode
  Evaluation of probe size in EMs   Effect of electron beam diameter on radiation damage
  Spot size and shape limited by aberrations   Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs
 
Spray & beam defining apertures in FIB Spot mask annotation on Gatan DigitalMicrograph
Spread of the kinetic electron energy  Spreading
Spurious/artifacts x-rays in EDS measurements Sputter ion pump (SIP)
 Sputtering
  Evaluation of sputtering cross section   Dependence of ionic sputtering on ionic energy
  Ionic sputtering in FIB   Sputtering/etching threshold energies by energetic electron & ion beams
  Introduction of ionic sputtering yields    
Sputtering damage in EMs
  Sputtering & its yield of materials in electron microscopes   Preferential electron-beam etching of grain boundaries
  Coating of TEM specimen to reduce beam damage & sputtering   Cross-sections of surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation (sputtering cross section)
  Sputtering/knock-on of atoms from beam-exit surface of TEM sample    
Square
  Square symmetry in electron diffraction patterns    
Stability
  Energy stability of EELS   Electrical stability of EM systems
  Instability in accelerating voltage of electron beam   Instability of TEM imaging due to specimen charging
  Stability of ferroelectrics related to oxygen vacancies    
  TEM imaging of stacking faults   Stacking fault energy of crystals
  Stacking faults, twins and dislocations in silicon   Determination of displacement vector of stacking fault
 
Stacking fault energy of crystals Standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of defocus due to the chromatic aberration
Standard focus/Eucentric height versus sample tilt in TEM Standby power for mobile devices
Staining Static dielectric constants
  Failure of static random-access memory (SRAM)    
Steels  
  Analytical electron microscopy (STEM/TEM)    Contrast analysis of HAADF-STEM images
  Imaging geometries of TEM and STEM systems   Tilt HAAD STEM tomography
  Three-dimensional sectioning of specimens using STEM   X-ray detector & EDS comparison in SEM/TEM/STEM
  Defect analysis by TEM/STEM   Interface analysis by TEM/STEM
  Low dose TEM/STEM imaging   Examples of TEM/STEM systems
  Examples of SEM/STEM systems   HAADF-STEM contrast at interface between two crystals
STEM mode
  Aberration and its correction in STEM mode   Cs correction in STEM
  Comparison between CTEM and STEM   Spherical aberration in STEM
  Beam spreading in STEM caused by chromatic aberration   Astigmatism in STEMs
  Virtual objective aperture (VOA) in TEM/STEM   Objective lens in SEMs/STEMs  
  Optimal convergence semi-angle in STEM   Measurements of convergence semi-angle in STEM and CBED
  Spatial resolution/beam spreading in STEM depending on convergence semiangle   Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs
  Probe shift in TEM system when switching between STEM and other modes   Maximum usable illumination angle in STEM
  STEM alignment with Ronchigram   STEM imaging affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam
  Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)   Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) STEM
  Defocus series in STEM imaging   STEM/TEM imaging with incoherent electrons
  Phase shift of electrons depending on scattering angle in TEM/STEM   Electronic noise in TEM/STEM/SEM/EELS/EDS systems
  Image localization in STEM   Minimum attainable probe size in STEM
  Theoretical interpretation of STEM/TEM images about crystalline defects   Theoretical interpretation of STEM/TEM images about crystalline surface
  In Situ TEM/STEM   In Situ liquid TEM/STEM analysis
  Liquid TEM and STEM stage and holder   Polarization in ferroelectrics measured by CBED in STEM mode
STEM: Wavefunction & intensity
  Contrast transfer function (CTF) in STEM   Sensitivity of STEM contrast to focus
  Purity of Z-contrast in HAADF-STEM (removing diffraction contrast)   Intensity/signal comparison between STEM and CTEM
  Simulation of HAADF-STEM images   Wavefunction of focused probe in STEM/SEM
  Wavefunction affected by aberrations in STEM   Exit wavefunction & intensity from STEM specimen
  Artifacts in HRSTEM imaging   Effects of amorphous layer and specimen thickness on high resolution STEM images
  HRSTEM image contrast as function of crystal tilt   HRSTEM image contrast as function of defocus
  Spectrum-imaging (SI) by STEM   Scan speed/Dwell time in TEM/STEM imaging
  Objective/probe-forming aperture for STEM imaging   Wobbler for high tension in TEM/STEM
  Streaking/noise artifact in TEM/STEM images   Wobbler for condenser lens excitation in TEM/STEM
  General thickness requirements of TEM samples for EELS/EFTEM/STEM    
 STEM data analysis
  Removal of sample thickness variations in STEM data analysis   Noise in STEM imaging
  Comparison between TEM and STEM bright field imagings   Contrast reversal of bright field TEM/STEM images
  Dependence of BF/ADF-STEM intensity on specimen thickness    
  Electron stereographic projection/stereogram for crystals   Relationship between electron diffraction patterns and stereographic projections
  Wulff net   Polar net
  Stereographic projection for cubic crystals    
  Pole (plane normal) in electron stereographic projection   Angle between two planes/plane normals/poles measured by Wulff net
 
Stigmators/astigmatism   Sticking coefficient
Stock: EM companies in stock markets Stobbs factor in TEM imaging
  Electron stopping power   Collision (ionization) stopping power
  Mass stopping power   Radiative stopping power
 Stopper
  Beam stopper in TEM    
Storage 
  Optical storage    
 Strain/stress
  Methods of measuring strain at micro/nano-scales   Strain/stress analysis using CBED
  Determination of lattice parameters/strain by plasmon EELS   Stress distribution around silicides
  Void formation by Nabarro–Herring creep   Electrons/holes mobility & current versus strain in materials
  Strain measurement with nanobeam diffraction (NBD)   Stress-redistribution-induced film bending due to FIB irradiation
  Strain analysis using electron holography   Misfit strain
  Strain in ferroelectric materials   TEM/STEM holders for strain analysis
 
Stray radiation in EMs Stray aperture in EMs
Stray magnetic field 
  Fluctuation of stray magnetic fields    
Streaking
  Streaking artifacts in EELS images or profiles   Streak imaging technique in EELS measurements
  Streaks formed by smearing/blooming in CCD camera   Streaking artefacts in FFTs of TEM images
  Streaks in electron diffraction patterns   Diffuse scattering in electron diffraction due to crystalline disorder
  Streaking artifacts in TIVA and OBIRCH images   Streaking/noise artifact in TEM/STEM images
Strength 
  Strength of lenses in EMs     Strength of diatomic bond/bond energy
  Grain boundary strength    
 
Strip width in integrated circuits (IC)  
Strontium
  EDS measurement of strontium (Sr)    
  Doped and undoped strontium titanate (SrTiO3 )   Superlattice of SrTiO3 and LaTiO3
  SrZrO3   Ca1-xSrxTiO3
  Atomic-number contrast of Sr ions   Sr1-pCr2X4-p (X = ˆS, Se)
 Structure
  Table of structural properties of materials   Structure factor and HRTEM
  Structure Factor Fhkl   Structure function and structure factor
 
Strukturbericht  
Substitution
  Space group/crystal structure depending on substitution concentration    
Substrate
  Selection of substrate direction for ICs    
 
Sum peaks in x-ray/EDS profiles  
  EDS/WDS measurements of sulfur (S)    
  La1.2CrS3.2   ZnSSe-based/GaAs heterostructures
  A1-pCr2S4-p (A =ˆ Ba, Sr, Eu, Pb)   Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)
  SF6 and its application in EMs    
 Surface
  Energy of atoms at surface   Difference of atomic structure between surface, interface, and bulk
  Surface plasmons formed in thin specimen in EMs   Surface reconstruction
  Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS (table)   EELS detection of molecularly adsorbed species on surfaces
  Surface & bulk plasmon energy in EELS (theory)   Theoretical interpretation of STEM/TEM images about crystalline surface
  Number of atoms at surface of and in nanoparticles   Surface energies of solids
  Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through surfaces    
Surface potential 
  Surface potential at sample surface induced by electron irradiation (e.g. in SEM)    
 
Supercells and subcells of crystals  
Superconductor 
  Superconducting lens for EMs    
Superlattices
  Superlattice of SrTiO3 and LaTiO3   Twofold superstructure
  Weak spots related to superstructures in electron diffractions    
 
Super pixel/binning/binned pixel in CCD Suppressor (of beam) in FIB
Switching valves Symmetric immersion lens as objective lens in SEM systems
  Symmetry groups for the crystal systems
  Rotation axis (1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 (Cn)) in crystallography
  Determination of crystal symmetry   CBED pattern symmetries for crystal determination
  2mm symmetry   4mm symmetry in electron diffraction patterns
  8mm symmetry   12mm symmetry
  Center of inversion (center of symmetry, i)    
  Non-centrosymmetric space groups   Centrosymmetric space groups
Symmetry: Three symmetry elements for point group definition
  Mirror planes (m, σ) in crystallography   Rotation axis (1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 (Cn)) in crystallography
  Rotoinversion axis (-4, S4) in crystallography    
 
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