Methods of Measuring Strain at Micro/Nano-scales
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Several techniques have been developed for strain measurements at micro- and nano-scales as listed in Table 4312.

Table 4312. Techniques for strain measurements at micro- and nano-scales.

TEM-based techniques
X-ray diffraction
Raman spectroscopy
Dark-field inline holography

Dark-field off-axis electron holography (DFOH)

Sample thickness
Uniform and thin TEM sample
Measurement field of view
< 30 – 50 nm
Large field of view
Clear drawback
Strain relaxation due to very thin specimen
High angle sample-tilt is needed; HOLZ line
due to large strain gradient
Nano-scale: precise spatial resolution
Nano-scale (e.g. 10 nm)
~500 nm to micro-scale
~500 nm to micro-scale
Simple experimental set-up
Highest strain measurement accuracy in low strain region among all TEM-based methods
High sensitivity
Special notes
Most favorable technique for routine work
[5, 6]





[1] F. Hüe, M. Hÿtch, F. Houdellier, E. Snoeck, and A. Claverie, “Strain mapping in MOSFETS by high-resolution electron microscopy and electron holography”, Materials Science and Engineering B, vol 154-155, pp. 221-224, 2008.
[2] P. Zhang, A. A. Istratov, E.R. Weber, C. Kisielowski, H. F. He, C. Nelson, and J. C. H. Spence, “Direct strain measurement in a 65 nm node strained silicon transistor by convergent-beam electron diffraction” Applied Physics Letters, vol 89, pp. 161907, 2006.
[3] K. Usuda, T. Numata, and S. Takagi, “Strain evaluation of strained-Si layers on SiGe by the nano-beam electron diffraction (NBD) method”, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol 8, pp. 155-159, 2005.
[4] C. T. Koch, V. B. Özdöl, and P. A. Van Aken, “An efficient, simple, and precise way to map strain with nanometer resolution in semiconductor devices”, vol 96, pp. 091901-3, 2010.
[5] M. J. Hÿtch, F. Houdellier, F. Hüe, and E. Snoeck, “Nanoscale holographic interferometry for strain measurements in electronic devices”, Nature, vol 453, pp. 1086-1089, 2008. 
[6] M.J. Hÿtch, F. Houdellier, A. Claverie, and L. Clément, Comparison of CBED and Dark-field Holography for Strain Mapping in Nanostructures and Devices, 2009. ESSDERC '09. Proceedings of the European Solid State Device Research Conference, (2009) 307 - 310.





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