Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter X  
Xenon
  XeF2    
  Possible electron transitions giving rise to characteristic X-rays   Comparison between EDS and WDS
  Comparison between XAS and EELS     Shape of X-ray peak in EDS measurements
  X-ray optics   Consideration of X-radiation protection in EM design
  Bremsstrahlung X-rays   Characteristic X-rays & their peaks
  Characteristic X-rays energies of some elements   Electron Relaxation and X-Ray
  Peak position shift in EDS   Energy peak overlapping in EDS spectrum
  Comparison between X-rays and energetic moving electrons   Characteristic X-ray energy versus critical ionization energy
  Detailed energy & intensity (weight/yield) of K, L, & M lines for all elements   Escape depth of X-rays
  Dependence of X-ray generation on atomic number   Wavelength (energy) of X-ray "particles" (photons)
  Electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA)   Initial and final levels for characteristic X-ray lines  
  X-ray applications   Theoretical intensity of characteristic X-rays
  Mean free path of X-rays   Hard X-rays
  Film thickness determination by X-ray reflectivity/interference   Soft X-rays
  Wavelength of lights   X-ray emission by electron irradiation
  X-ray emission lines of all elements in periodic table   X-ray generation by scattering of incident electrons
  X-ray (fluorescence) yield/weight due to electron irradiation   Comparison of EDS measurements with low- & high-energy incident electrons
  X-ray emission from multiple layers depending on accelerating voltages of electrons   X-ray detector & EDS comparison in SEM/TEM/STEM
  X-ray atomic scattering factors   Elements with possible X-ray interferences in EDS
  Maximum escape depth of X-rays     
  Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXRF/WDS)   Channelling/diffraction enhanced X-ray emission in EDS measurements
  Physical modeling of EDS background   Signal to noise ratio of EDS
  X-ray peak to background ratio in EDS   Signal/noise filtering for EDS background calculation
  EDS background noise & modulation and their effects on analysis   Intensity of bremsstrahlung X-rays: Kramers' law
  Reduction of EDS background   Background shelf in EDS measurements
  Absorption of outgoing X-ray in EDS measurements   Secondary X-ray (fluorescence) in EDS measurements
  X-ray emission from multiple layers depending on accelerating voltages of electrons   Noise peaks in EDS measurement
  Stray radiation in EMs   Escape peak in EDS/X-ray profiles
  Sum peaks/coincidence peaks/peak pile-up in x-ray/EDS profiles   Energy peak overlapping in EDS spectrum
  Thickness-induced EDS artifacts   EDS intensities and their ratio collected by detector
  k-factor correction due to sample thickness effect   Channelling enhanced X-ray emission
  Broadening of EDS peaks   Distortion/asymmetry of X-ray peak from Gaussian shape in EDS
  Periodic table of X-ray absorption edges   EDS background noise & modulation and their effects on analysis
  Incomplete charge collection in EDS measurements   Background shelf in EDS measurements
  X-ray absorption energy   k-factor/ZAF correction due to sample thickness effect ('thin-film' criterion)
  Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)   X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)
  Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)   X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)  
  Beer’s law for EDS measurement    
  X-ray absorption induced by carbon contamination   Low voltage energy dispersive spectroscopy (LVEDS) or low-energy X-ray emission spectroscopy (LEXES)
X-ray bolometer
  Comparison of various X-ray spectrometers    
  Kinematically diffracted electron and X-ray beams & their intensities   Artifacts and drawbacks of XRD technique
  Preferred orientation on X-ray diffraction patterns   Kossel lines in x-ray diffraction
  Comparison between X-ray (XRD) and electron diffractions   Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction lines
  XRD patterns of amorphous materials   XRD analysis of particles and nanostructures
  X-ray lines used in XRD analysis  

Peak splitting in XRD profiles

  Reflection numbers in XRD profiles   Phase identification with XRD and its procedure
  JCPDS card for XRD analysis   Evaluation of grain size by XRD technique
  K-family (Kα & Kβ) X-ray emission   L-family of characteristic X-ray emission
  M-family of characteristic X-ray emission    
  Advantage and Disadvantage of EDS     EDS principle  
  Comparison between EDS and AES   Comparison between EDS and EELS  
  Cliff-Lorimer sensitivity factors/k-factors in EDS/x-rays   k-factor/ZAF correction due to sample thickness effect ('thin-film' criterion)
  k-factor determination and EDS calibration   Possible electron transitions giving rise to characteristic X-rays 
  Take-off angle (TOA) in EDS system   Sensitivity/detection limit/minimum detectable mass of EDS  
  EDS-TEM specimen holders   Elemental loss in EM specimen detected by EDS
  Secondary X-Ray (Fluorescence) in EDS Measurements   Objective lens versus EDS and EELS
  Dependence of EDS on accelerating voltages of incident electrons   Applications of EDS technique
  Sensitivity/detection limit/minimum detectable mass of EDS   Accuracy of EDS quantification
  Spatial resolution in EDS technique   EDS measurements of minor and/or trace elements
  Solid state detectors (SSDs)   Lithium-drifted silicon diodes & Si(Li) EDS detectors
  EDS intensities/counts and intensity/count ratio collected by detector   Position of EDS detector in EMs
  Field Effect Transistor (FET) preamplifier in EDS systems   Collection efficiency of EDS measurements/detectors
  Size of EDS detector in EMs   Distance effect on solid angle of EDS detector
  Collection angle/solid angle of EDS detector   Silicon drift EDS detectors (SDD)
  Collimator in EDS detectors in EMs   Peak-detector/peak-stretcher in EDS systems
  Spectroscopic amplifier in EDS system   Development history of X-ray analysis for EMs
  Maintenance of EDS system   Damage of EDS detectors
  Top-entry type EDS detector   EDS signal affected by secondary and backscattered electrons
  Evaluation of EDS detectors   Dead layers in EDS detectors
  Considerations of operating conditions of EDS analytical microscopy   EDS energy calibration
  EDS acquisition time   EDS artifacts induced by beam damage
  Detection of high energy X-rays in EDS   Critical sample thickness for EDS measurement
  Dead time in EDS measurement   Maximizing EDS intensity/counts
  Live time in EDS measurements   Clock time in EDS measurements
  EDS measurements in aberration corrected TEMs   Chemical shift detection of elements by EDS
  Widths of X-ray peaks in EDS measurement   “Hole Count” in X-ray measurements
  Simultaneous EELS and EDS acquisition   Time constant/peaking time/shaping time of EDS amplifier
  Software for EDS spectrum acquisition and analysis   NSS EDS software
  X-ray intensity affected by overvoltage   Spatial resolution dependence on overvoltages
  Broadening of EDS peaks   Thin-foil criterion (thin-film approximation) in EDS measurement
  Automatic qualitative EDS analysis   Deconvolution in EDS analysis
  EDS analysis of light elements   Correct and incorrect peak identification in EDS measurements
  EDS quantification with k-factors (Cliff-Lorimer factors)   EDS ZAF quantification mode & Matrix correction
  EDS PhiRhoZ (Phi-Rho-Z) quantification mode    
EDS quantification 
  Standardless EDS quantification   Quantitative EDS analysis with standards (calibrated)
  k-factor determination and EDS calibration   Mass-thickness effects on EDS signal/intensity
  Ratio technique for elemental quantification by EDS   Accuracy of EDS quantification
  EDS quantification of light elements   3D effect and relevant correction in EDS quantification
  EDS quantification of heavy elements   Low-energy X-rays and elemental quantification
  Linear least squares fitting technique   Multiple linear least-squares (MLLS) peak fitting for EDS analysis
  Digital-filtered least-squares peak fitting for EDS quantification    
X-ray: Windows of EDS detectors
  Ultrathin window (UTW) on EDS detector   Beryllium `window' EDS detector
  `Windowless' EDS detector   Atmospheric thin window (ATW) detector
  X-ray absorption in detector windows    
X-ray: EDS resolutions
  Spatial resolution of EDS on light element matrices   Spatial resolution dependence on X-ray lines
  Spatial resolution dependence on overvoltages   Spatial resolution of SEM
  EDS spatial resolution depending on EM sample thickness   Effect of beam spreading on EDS spatial resolution
  Energy resolution of EDS   Spatial resolution in EDS technique
  Degradation of EDS spatial resolution due to specimen drift   Degradation of EDS spatial resolution due to specimen contamination
       
 
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