Development History of X-ray Analysis for EMs
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Table 2524. The detailed development history of X-ray analysis in EMs.

Date
Name/organization
Milestone
2004
  UltraDry Silicon Drift detector
2001
  SuperDryII LN-free detector
1995
  CryoCooled liquid nitrogen-free detector
1994
  Freedom liquid nitrogen-free detector
1994
  Digital pulse processor
1982
  Light-element pulse processor
1980
  Time-variant pulse processor
1973
  MicroTrace SEM detector 165 eV. Reed and Ware [3] demonstrated
that quantitative analysis of silicate minerals for elements with atomic number 11 and above could be achieved by EDXS with limit of detection around 0.001 mass fraction and with an accuracy equivalent to WDS.
1972
  Suggested that the source of error was primarily deconvolution of overlapping peaks and background correction. [4]
1968
Developed solid state EDS detectors & Kevex SEM detector
1965
Commercial production of SEM began
Mid 1960s
Developed a semiconductor radiation detector at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that heralded the advent of energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, or x-ray energy spectrometry (XES).
1956
Commercial production of electron microprobe began (Cameca)
1951
  Castaing’s thesis. [2] In the two decades following this thesis, x-ray intensities were measured with high resolution Bragg crystal “wavelength dispersive” spectrometers (WDS).
1949
Castaing
Built first electron microprobe for microchemical analysis (with crystal focusing wavelength dispersive spectrometer) for Ph.D at University of Paris, and developed the basic theory
1948
Developed a prototype for the first modern commercial x-ray spectrometer
1942
First use of SEM to examine surfaces of thick specimens at RCA Labs
1940
RCA sold first commercial TEM outside Germany
1930s
Scanning coils added to TEM, producing STEM (image produced by secondary electrons emitted by specimen)
1932
Ernst Ruska (belated Nobel prize for it in 1986) in Germany
First demonstration of TEM
Late 1920s
Siemens & Halske Co in Germany
Built TEM, but WWII prevented sale and use outside Germany
1923
von Hevesy
Discovered Hf after noticing a gap at Z = 72
1922
Hadding
Used X-ray spectra to chemically analyze minerals
1920s
  Designed curved X-ray spectrometers
1913
Braggs
Obtained the first X-ray spectrum of Pt using an NaCl crystal (it's the Law: n*λ = 2d *sin θ)
1913
Mosely
Found that there was a systematic variation of the wavelength of characteristic X-rays from various elements ( wavelength inversely proportional to Z squared )
1912
Friedrich and Knipping
Confirmed that X-rays could be diffracted by crystals with lattice spacings of similar dimension
Early 1900s
Kaye [1] Demonstrated the use of electrons to produce X-rays which were characteristic of specific elements
1895
Roentgen Discovered X-rays, produced by electron bombardment of inert gas in tubes; gas fluoresces and nearby photographic plates are exposed (X-rays' wavelength = 0.05 - 100 Å)
Late 1800s
Starke [1]
Suggested an electron source could generally distinguish materials of different compositions

 

 

 

[1] Scott VD, Love G (1983) Quantitative electron-probe microanalysis. Wiley, New York.
[2] R. Castaing, Application des sondes electroniques a une methode d’analyse ponctuelle chimique et cristallographique, Thesis, University of Paris, O.N.E.R.A. Publ. No 55 (1951).
[3] S. J. B. Reed and N. G. Ware, Quantitative Electron Microprobe Analysis Using a Lithium Drifted Silicon Detector, X-Ray Spectrometry 2, 69-74 (1973).
[4] D. R. Beaman and L. F. Solosky, Accuracy of Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis with Energy Dispersive Spectrometers, Anal. Chem. 44 (9), 1598-1610 (1972).

 

 

 

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