Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
 Chapter C
C-centered lattices/C-centering & their space groups
C2 (5) Cm (8) Cc (9) C2/m (12) C2/c (A2/a, 15)      
C2221 (20) C222 (21) Cmm2 (35) Cmc21 (A21am, 36) Ccc2 (37) Cmcm (63) Cmca (Abma, Bmab, 64) Cmmm (65)
Cccm (66) Cmma (67) Ccca (68)          
c/a ratios in hcp structures C-planes of sapphire crystal
  Calibration of magnification and scale bar in TEM   EDS energy calibration
  Calibration of electron diffraction patterns   Calibration of EELS profile by K edge of amorphous carbon (π* peak)
Cadmium (Cd)
  CdSe    EELS of Cadmium (Cd)
Calcium (Ca)
  EDS measurement of calcium (Ca)   EELS measurement of calcium (Ca)
  Ca1-xSrxTiO3   CaTiO3
  CaO   Ca3Al2Si3O12
Castaing-Henry (C-H) magnetic prism/electrostatic mirror Cat’s eye (beam shape)
  Misfit layer chalcogenides    
Challenges: advanced EM-related measurements and analyses  
  Charge-coupled device (CCD) for EELS & EFTEM    Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in EELS and imaging systems 
  Dew point     Dynamic range 
  Gatan hardware, camera, & software   Electron-to-Counts conversion efficiency  
  Phosphor used in electron spectrum detectors/cameras     Nyquist frequency  
  Point-spread function of camera    Photodiode array (PDA) for EELS  
  Photo-diode array (PDA) detectors     Spatial of camera 
Camera length
  Camera length in EBSD   Projector lenses & camera lengths/camera constant in TEM/STEMs
  Magnification versus camera length     (Effective) camera length in TEM
  PVC of capacitors   Capacitive coupling voltage contrast (CCVC)
  Diamond   (Holey) carbon supports for EM analysis
  EELS of carbon (C)   Raman spectrum of carbon
  Calibration of EELS profile by K edge of amorphous carbon (π* peak)   EDS measurement of carbon
  Carbon deposition by FIB   Carbon coating on TEM samples – to avoid charging effect
  Electron diffraction patterns and FFT of HRTEM of amorphous carbon   C-doped Fe/carbon in iron
  Carbon-materials bonds   TEM observation of carbon nanotubes
  SiC   EM images of amorphous carbon
  Copper (Cu) with dielectric diffusion barrier SiCxNy   CF4 gas
  Carbon contamination in IC devices   Boron carbide
  Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon contamination of EM specimens   Carbon contamination effects on EELS measurements & its reduction
  Carbon monoxide (CO)   Carbon deposition/contamination in SOFCs
  C-based metallic-glass alloys   Carbon-coated aluminum
  X-ray absorption induced by carbon contamination   EDS-TEM specimen holders
  TEM analysis of catalysts   Catalytic converter
Cathode in electron gun in EMs Cathode (positive) & anode (negative) electrode materials for lithium batteries
  Electron relaxation and light/cathodoluminescence   In situ observation in cathodoluminescence imaging
   Cathodoluminescence imaging   Resolution of cathodoluminescence technique
  Correction of astigmatism of objective lens using caustic image   Coma-free alignment in TEM based on caustic image
  Correction of astigmatism of condenser lens using caustic image
CaTiO3 Cavity/hole/bubble/void in materials
Center of inversion (center of symmetry, i)  
Centering in EMs
  Voltage centering in TEM   Current centering in TEM
Centrosymmetric space groups & Laue groups  
  TEM analysis of ceramics    
  EELS of Cerium (Ce)   EDS measurement of cerium (Ce)
  CeF3    Gadolinium doped ceria oxide (GDC)
  Ce-based metallic-glass alloys   Ce2O3 and CeO2
Cesium (Cs) 
CFM56 engines  
Channel in EELS  
  Channels: Gain variations in energy filter, CCDs & EELS channels    Gain normalization for EELS measurement
  Electron channeling in EM specimens   Channelling/diffraction enhanced X-ray emission in EDS measurements
  Electron channeling/diffraction in EELS measurements   Electron channeling in HAADF STEM imaging
  Ion channeling on FIB measurements    
  Valence state controlled by charge neutrality    
  Full-frame transfer (FT) CCD   Interline transfer (IT) CCD
  Super pixel/binning/binned pixel in CCD   CCD for EELS & EFTEM
  Binning in CCD   Blooming/smearing in CCD
  Streaks formed by smearing/blooming in CCD camera   Noise reduction by binning in CCD
  Binning versus saturation/exposure time in CCD camera   Slow scan charge-coupled device (SSCCD) camera
  Scintillator-coupled CCD camera    
Characteristic inelastic scattering angle for EELS Characteristic X-rays
  Charging of electrically isolated materials in SEM    Charge-induced SE (secondary electron) contrast in SEM 
  Instability of TEM imaging due to specimen charging   Negative charging in SEM observation
  Positive charging in SEM observation   Carbon coating on TEM samples – to avoid charging effect
  Charging enhanced electron/ion-beam-induced-deposition   Sample charging in FIB processes
  Instability of EEL spectra or images due to GIF charging   Discharging and charging in electron guns
Charged particle
  Coulomb interaction between heavy charged particle and orbital electron   Hard collision between charged particle and atom
  Soft collision between charged particle and atom   Energy transfer from charged particle to matter
  Interaction between incident charged particle and matter   Radius of path of electrons/charged particles in a magnetic field
  Rutherford (elastic) scattering   Correction of chromatic aberration in charged particle accelerators with time-varying fields
  Wave properties of charged particles    
Charged defects and deep level traps in materials Chaotic phases/structures
 Chemical analysis
  Chemical analysis by TEM/SEM     Analysis of chemical-state/structure
  Chemical bond length   Bonding and antibonding
  Bond overlap population diagram (BOPD)   Elemental bonding analysis using EELS
  Bonding disorder in materials   Bonding energies and melting temperatures of substances
  Valence electron energy modified by bond formation   Core electron energy modified by bond formation
Chemical and physical constants Chemical ordering in crystals
Chemical processes
  In-situ TEM observations of chemical processes   Chemical changes induced by ion beam irradiation
  Chemical shift detection of elements by EDS   Chemical shift detection of elements by EELS and EFTEM
  Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)   FIB induced deposition
Cherenkov/Cerenkov/Čerenkov radiation Chevron defect
Chimney-ladder structures Chiral space groups
  EDS measurement of chlorine (Cl)   EELS of chlorine (Cl)
  Chlorine-induced corrosion/contamination in ICs   BCl3
  CsCl   TiCl4-Ether complex
  Cl2   HCl
  AlCl3   Sodium chloride (NaCl)
  Effects of chromatic aberration on EELS     Resolution limit due to chromatic aberration (Cc)
  Dependence of Cs and Cc aberrations on accelerating voltage of beam   Achromatic lenses/achromats
  Standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of defocus due to the chromatic aberration   Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by chromatic aberration
  Beam spreading in STEM caused by chromatic aberration   Chromatic aberration affected by beam alignments
  Defocus induced by chromatic aberration/energy deviation in electrons    
  Cc correction in SEM   Interaction between chromatic and spherical aberration corrections
  Effect of chromatic aberration on fine structure analysis using EFTEM   Effect of chromatic aberration on spatial resolution in EMs
  Correction of chromatic aberration in charged particle accelerators with time-varying fields   Quadrupole for chromatic aberration (Cc) corrections
  Hexapole for chromatic aberration (Cc) corrections   Correction of electron optical aberrations in EFTEM
  EELS measurement of chromium (Cr)   EDS measurement of chromium (Cr)
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)   La1.2CrS3.2
  Wafer cleaning    
Cleavage plane of crystals Circle of least confusion
Circular functions in EMs  
  Cliff-Lorimer ratio method for EDS   Cliff-Lorimer sensitivity factors in EDS
  EDS quantification with k-factors (Cliff-Lorimer factors)    
Clock time in EDS measurements Close packed (most densely packed) planes and directions in crystals
  Clustering of vacancies into dislocation loops    
  Scaling of CMOS-FET    
CMP scratches Cockcroft–Walton voltage-multiplier circuit generator
Coarsening/Ostwald ripening of dislocation loops  
  Coating of TEM specimen to reduce beam damage & sputtering    
  EELS Measurement of  Cobalt (Co)   Co-X equilibrium phase diagrams
  Co-based metallic-glass alloys   EDS measurements of cobalt (Co)
  Diffraction patterns of cobalt disilicide (CoSi2) and cobalt silicide (CoSi)   Mapping of CoSi and CoSi2 Distributions
  Void-formation-induced failure in cobalt silicidation in ICs   Failure of cobalt silicidation in ICs
  Coherence between diffracted electron beams in TEMs   Low angle elastic scattering and coherence in TEM
  Coherence of electron beam shown by STEM/Ronchigram   Partial coherence of electron source
  Coherent beam current in EMs   Spatial coherence/incoherence of electron source
  Electron beam coherence vs HRTEM   Temporal coherence/incoherence of electron source
  Coherence length of electrons   Coherent aberrations
  Coherent illumination in EMs   Beam convergence angle/coherence effects on CTF patterns
  Electron beam convergence angle and coherence   Effects of illumination coherence on spatial resolution in TEMs
  Optimum convergence semi-angle in STEM    
Cincidence site lattice (CSL) boundary
  Incoherent coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundary   Σ(Sigma numbers): Coincident site lattice (CSL) of twin and grain boundaries
Coefficients Coercive field in ferroelectrics
(Cold cathode) ionization gauge/Penning gauge Cold field emission electron gun (CFEEG)
  Funnels used to fill cold traps with liquid nitrogen for EMs   Cold trap to prevent contamination of TEM specimen
  ACD (anti-contamination device) operation on TEM system    
  Collection angle of EELS in TEM diffraction and (dedicated) STEM modes   Effects of entrance aperture/collection angle on EELS
  Spatial resolution of EFTEM mapping affected by collection angle   Dependence of information depth on primary electron beam energy/incident angle/collection angle in REELS
Color tones of materials Collection angle of EDS detector
  Collection angle in TEM diffraction and STEM modes   Dependence of collection semiangle on objective aperture in TEM imaging mode
Collimator in EDS detectors in EMs  
  Collision (ionization) stopping power   Hard collision between charged particle and atom
  Electron collision with matter in TEM   Soft collision between charged particle and atom
  Variation of electron beam current in EM columns    
Columnar substructures in crystals
  Diffuse diffraction streaks in electron diffraction from columnar substructures    
  Properties of coma-free lenses   Off-axial coma and field of view
  Difference between axial coma and twofold astigmatism   Coma-free point/plane
  Electron-beam-tilt-induced coma in TEM   Wobbler for coma-free alignment with beam tilt
  Aberration coefficient C2,1 (B2): axial coma aberration   Axial coma (B2) correction with Ronchigram
  Determination of axial coma in TEM measurements   Coma-free alignment in TEM based on caustic image
  Coma-free alignment in TEM for magnetic materials    
  Comparison between CBED and electron holography   Comparison between STEM and SEM
  Comparison between EDS and AES   Comparison between EDS and EELS  
  Comparison between TEM and SEM   Comparison between XAS and EELS
  Comparison between CBED and EBSD   Comparison between CBED and SAD (selected area diffraction)
  Comparison between CTEM and STEM   Comparison between EELS and AES
  Comparison between optical and electron microscopes   Comparison between TEM and STEM bright field imagings
  Comparison between X-ray and electron diffractions   Comparison between VEELS and conventional optical spectroscopy
  Comparison between TEELS (EELS) and REELS   Comparison between FIB, electron beam and laser beam techniques
  Comparison between EDS and WDS   Comparisons between HRTEM and EELS techniques
  Comparison between HRTEM and HR-HAADF-STEM imaging   Comparison between different electron sources/guns
  Comparison between backscattered electron & secondary electron imagings    
Comparisons: some technique considerations
  Comparison of various X-ray spectrometers   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  Advantages and disadvantages between thin and thick/bulk sample in EMs   Intensity and imaging comparison between elastic and inelastic scatterings
  Comparison between aberration-corrected and uncorrected EMs   Comparison between X-rays and energetic moving electrons
  Comparison between low and high voltage TEM/STEM   Comparison between EFG(field emission)-TEMs and CTEMs (LaB6 and tungsten)
  Energy resolutions of different spectroscopic techniques   Comparison of lens conditions between TEM diffraction and TEM imaging modes
  Comparison of electron optics of various filters & spectrometers   Comparison between common pumps used in EMs
  Comparison of EDS measurements with low- & high-energy incident electrons   Relationship between electron diffraction patterns and stereographic projections
Comparisons: Materials and their applications
  Comparison between ionic, covalent, and metallic materials   Comparison between valence band (outer) and core (inner) electrons
  Comparison between different batteries   Comparison between different memories
Companies/manufacturers producing FIB & EM instruments  
  Modulation/satellite reflections due to mutually commensurate mismatch    
  Crystal structure of compounds    
Compound semiconductor 
  Etching of III-V/compound semiconductor materials    
Compressive/mechanical pumps  
  Objective aperture for STEM imaging   Condenser lenses/apertures in TEMs 
  Artifacts induced by misalignment of condenser aperture    
Compton scattering of electrons Computers
Computer/remote application in EMs Constant-loss approximation on process of secondary electron generation
  Condenser lenses/apertures in TEMs    Detailed optics of condenser lens in TEMs/STEMs
  Twin condenser lens systems in EMs   'Mini' lens
  Wobbler for condenser lens excitation in TEM/STEM   Beam alignment between condenser and objective lenses
  Correction of astigmatism of condenser lens using caustic image
  Astigmatism corrections of condenser and objective lenses in TEM for magnetic materials
  Illuminating spot size & intensity changed by condenser lens    
  Unoccupied energy levels in conduction band (EELS)   Conduction- & valence-band offsets
Confocal/focal series STEM Contrast analysis of HAADF-STEM images
  Barrier layer in contacts in ICs   Contact failure in ICs
  Ohmic contacts in ICs   Historical development of ohmic contacts in Si-based ICs
  Voids formed in Si at contact interfaces   Spiking at contacts in ICs
  Non-Ohmic contact failure in ICs    
  Contamination/corrosion in ICs/wafers   Contamination of GIF system
  ACD (anti-contamination device) operation on TEM system   Contamination of apertures
  Cold trap to prevent contamination of TEM specimen   Vacuum contamination in EMs
  Contamination reduction in EM vacuum   TEM/STEM film thickness measurements based on contamination spots
  Contamination and cleaning of electron guns in EMs   Effect of hydrocarbon in SEM observation
  Cleaning of hydrocarbon contamination by oxygen radicals in EMs   Degradation of EDS spatial resolution due to specimen contamination
Condenser stigmators Concave lens in electron microscopes
Continuous/discrete/fast Fourier transform (DFT/CFT/FFT) Convolution/folding of functions
Contrast/visibility of images Contrast: Image contrast in aberration-corrected EMs
  TEM contrast and underfocus   Mass-thickness contrast in TEM images
  Diffraction contrast in TEM images   TEM contrast limit of chemical elements
  Correction of objective astigmatism with minimum background contrast technique   Background contrast in TEM/STEM images
  High contrast aperture in TEMs    
Contrast in HRTEM imaging  
  Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus   Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)
  Contrast delocalization/blurring effect in TEM images   Contrast of atoms in TEM
Contrast reversal
  Contrast reversal of bright field TEM/STEM images   Contrast Reversal in SEM
Collection efficiency 
  Collection efficiency of EDS   Collection efficiency of EELS
  Collection efficiency of secondary electrons in SEM   Collection efficiency of backscattered electrons
  Contrast dependence on accelerating voltage of PE (primary electrons)   Dependence of dopant contrast in Si on accelerating voltage of PE
  Contrast dependence on spot size (probe current)   Contrast dependence on tilt angle of sample
  Contrast dependence on design of the microscope   Contrast dependence on detector position
  Contrast dependence on dopants in semiconductors   Contrast dependence on features (edge effect)
  Contrast dependence on lens shape   Contrast dependence on chamber shape
  Contrast dependence on scan speed   Atomic contrast (Z-contrast) in SEM
  Charge-induced SE (secondary electron) contrast in SEM    Contrast dependence on surface structure/surface-topography contrast
  Contrast dependence on vaccum level/gas pressure   Contrast dependence on detector bias
  Contrast dependence on working distance   Contrast dependence on angle of detection  
  Contrast reversal     Contrast dependence on specimen composition/elements of materials 
  Contrast in SEM Images: voltage contrast     Shadowing contrast in SEM
  Bias-induced contrast/intensity effect in SEM   Contrast dependence on negative potential on the sample  
  Correction of objective astigmatism with minimum background contrast technique    
   Topographic contrast (sharpness) depending on beam energy   Topographic contrast (sharpness) affected by the detector position
  Artifacts in CBED patterns   CBED operation procedure
  Applications of CBED   Measurements of convergence semi-angle in STEM and CBED
  Intensity distribution in the CBED disks   Comparison between CBED and SAD (selected area diffraction)
  Sample thickness determination using CBED   Bragg spots in CBED
  Excitation error and Ewald sphere in CBED   Focused convergent incident electron beam
  Defocused convergent incident electron beam   Deficiency lines in zero-order disc in CBED patterns
  Higher order Laue zones (HOLZ) lines in CBED   Effects of beam-specimen interaction volume on CBED
  Pixel resolution for recording CBED patterns   Zero-order disk of CBED patterns
  Probe shift in TEM system when switching between CBED and other modes   Comparison between CBED and EBSD
  CBED Kikuchi pattern contrast depending on samples thickness   Large angle convergent beam electron diffraction (LACBED)
  Dislocation detection by CBED and LACBED   Disk size/radius in CBED
  Rocking-curve intensity oscillations within CBED   Comparison between CBED and electron holography
  Relationship between diffraction group and point group   Spatial resolution in CBED measurements
  Dynamical extinction lines in CBED patterns   Comparison between X-ray (XRD) and electron diffractions
  Improvement of CBED analysis by energy filter    
 Determinations of crystal structures and space groups
  CBED pattern symmetries for crystal determination   Phase identification procedure by CBED
  Indexing CBED patterns   Existing of extinction bands within forbiddden reflections in CBED patterns
  Departure from Friedel’s law in CBED patterns    
  Accuracy of strain measurement by CBED   Optimization of specimen thickness for strain analysis by CBED
  CBED optimization for strain analysis    
  Splitting of HOLZ lines in CBED patterns    
CBED in STEM mode  
  Polarization in ferroelectrics measured by CBED in STEM mode    
  Linear contrast transfer theory   Phase contrast transfer function in real EMs
  Diffractogram & phase Contrast Transfer Function (pCTF)   Artifacts in TEM contrast transfer patterns and profiles
  Sensitivity of CTF to defocus of objective lens   Beam convergence angle/coherence effects on CTF patterns
  Electron Ronchigram contrast transfer function (CTF) in STEM   TEM/STEM characteristics affected by CTF damping
Converging-lens control system in EMs Conventional TEM (CTEM)
  Convergence semiangle in TEM and diffraction modes   Electron beam convergence & convergence angle
  Aberration & beam spread/convergence   Dependence of information depth on primary electron beam energy/incident angle/collection angle in REELS
  Spatial resolution/beam spreading in STEM depending on convergence semiangle   Beam convergence angle/coherence effects on CTF patterns
  Electron beam convergence angle and coherence   Applicable larger convergence angle in aberration-corrected EMs
  Beam convergence angle/coherence effects on phase shift   Measurements of convergence semi-angle in STEM and CBED
  Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter    
  Convex electromagnetic lens   Convex structures
  Material growth on convex surfaces    
Cooling systems
  Liquid nitrogen (N2) cooled cryostat (e.g. in EDS detectors)   Peltier mechanical cooling
  Peltier thermoelectric cooling   TEM/STEM cooling holders and specimen cooling
  Water cooling in EMs    
  Cooling rate to make metallic glasses from melts   Generation of defects in crystals depending on cooling rates
  Coordination number study by ELNES & EXELFS   Coordination number dependence on free volume in metallic glass
  Short-range-orderings dependence on coordination number in metallic glasses   Coordination number of atoms in crystals
  O2- coordination and bond strength    
  EELS measurement of copper (Cu)    EDS measurement of copper (Cu) and its artifacts
  Shell occupancies and binding energies of the electron shells in Cu   Amorphous CuxZry alloys
  Zrx–Nby–Cuz–Nim–Aln alloys   X-Cu phase diagrams

Al-Cu alloy

  Copper silicide
  Cu2ZnSnSe4    La2CuSnO6
  Copper windings of wire in electromagnetic lenses   Cu-CeO-YSZ
  CuxZryTiz   Cu-based metallic-glass alloys
  Cu2O   La2-xBaxCuO4
  Copper migration failures in ICs   Electromigration (EM) diffusion of copper
  Copper (Cu) interconnects with tantalum (Ta) barrier   Copper (Cu) with dielectric diffusion barrier SiCxNy
  Barriers for copper interconnections   Cu/TiN/TiSi2/Si Contacts 
  Copper damascene interconnects
  Comparison between valence band (outer) and core (inner) electrons   Core electron energy modified by bond formation
  Gaussian Focus for Core-Loss EFTEM Imaging     Difference of focus depth for inelastic (core-loss EFTEM) and elastic imaging  
  Plasmon signal affected by core-loss transitions in EELS    
Coulomb interaction between heavy charged particle and orbital electron Cost of EM and related system and services

Cost of lasers and lights

  Shape of ionization edge/core-loss edge in EELS    
  3D effect and relevant correction in EDS quantification    
  Comparison between ionic, covalent, and metallic materials    
  Void formation by Nabarro–Herring creep    
  Performance criteria in HRTEM    
  Accuracy of CD measurements using TEM   Critical-dimension (CD) in integrated circuits (IC)
  Critical sample thickness for EDS measurement   Critical excitation energy
  Accuracy of CD (critical dimension) measurements using TEM    
  Critical ionization energy versus characteristic X-ray energy   Critical ionization energies of some elements
Cross correlation function (XCF)/coefficient between two images Crossed lattice fringes to form HRTEM images
Cross product
  Determination of Miller indices of planes    
  Right-hand rule for cross products   Zone axis determined by cross-product
Cross section (probabilities) of scatterings: Introduction Cross sections (probabilities) of events: Introduction
  Cross section of high-angle scattering of electrons   Binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method for cross section calculation
  Elastic cross section of a complex material   Mott cross section
  Rutherford cross-section   Differential cross section of total (elastic & inelastic) electron scattering
  Damage cross section in EELS measurements   Cross section of EELS K shell ionization
  Bethe cross section   Cross section for bremsstrahlung production
  Cross section of plasmon scattering   Cross section of secondary-electron generation
  Ionization cross section   Cross section of L-shell ionization
  Cross section of K-shell ionization   Displacement cross sections of atoms due to electron irradiation
  Cross sections of electron inelastic interaction in DNA   Damage cross section for electron irradiation 
  Accelerating voltage dependence of scattering cross-section for ionization   Cross-section for inelastic scattering in EELS measurements
  Cross-over formed by focusing electron beam   Electron cross-over in TEM/STEM mode
  Cryo-focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM)   Cryogenic (adsorption) pumps & cold traps for vacuum
  Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM)   Cryo-preparations of TEM specimens
  Cryostat (e.g. in EDS detectors)    
Crystalline materials
  Crystalline phase analysis by EELS plasmon   Crystalline phase analysis by EELS core-loss
  Diffusion/diffusivity of elements through single crystals   Difference of binding energies in amorphous and crystalline phases
  Difference between bond lengths of amorphous and crystalline materials   Crystal percentage in metallic glasses made from melts
  Coordination number of atoms in crystals   Notation for crystal structures
  Incommensurate modulated phases/structures   Incommensurate composite crystals 
  Quasicrystals   Misfit layer structures
  Intergrowth compounds   Vernier structures
  Chimney-ladder structures   Crystal field theory
Crystal family  
Crystal growth 
  Crystal growth in ICs studied by electron tomography    
  Most common crystal structure of elements in periodic table     Determination of crystal orientation
  32 point groups    Determination of unknown crystal structures
  Planes in lattice system of crystals   Directions in lattice system of crystals
  Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of crystalline materials   Ronchigrams of crystalline films in STEM
  Anisotropy of physical and chemical properties of crystals   Crystal orientation/diffraction effects on EELS signals
  Crystal structure of compounds   Space group/crystal structure depending on substitution concentration
  Atomic arrangement in crystal structures   Orientation relationship between two crystals
  Crystallization of metallic glasses   Crystallization kinetics of amorphous materials
  Crystallization speed   Dependence of crystallized fraction on annealing time and temperature
Crystallographic structure refinement Crystallographic orbit
  Stereographic projection for a cubic film with [001] normal   Interfacial angles of cubic crystals
  HRTEM imaging of cubic crystal structures   Diffraction comparison between different cubic crystal structures
  23 point group   m-3 point group
  432 point group   -43m point group
  m-3m point group   Determination of point groups of cubic systems
Cubic space groups
F-centered lattices/F-centering & their space groups          
F23 (196) Fm-3 (202) Fd-3 (203) F432 (209) F4132 (210) F4-3m (216) F-43c (219) Fm-3m (225)
Fm-3c (226) Fd-3m (227) Fd-3c (228)          
I (body-centered) lattices/I-centering & their space groups          
I23 (197) I213 (199) Im-3 (204) Ia-3 (206) I432 (211) I4132 (214) I-43m (217) I-43d (220)
Im-3m (229) Ia-3d (230)            
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P23 (195) P213 (198) Pm-3 (200) Pn-3 (201) Pa-3 (205) P432 (207) P4232 (208) P4332 (212)
P4132 (213) P-43m (215) P-43n (218) Pm-3m (221) Pn-3n (222) Pm-3n (223) Pn-3m (224)  
Curie temperature/Curie point Curie-Weiss temperature
Current in EMs & its measurement
  Stability of lens currents in EMs   Dependence of electron probe/beam current on probe size in EMs
  Probe current in EMs   Current centering in TEM
  Variation of electron beam current in EM columns    
  Measurement of electron beam/probe current   Measurement of electron probe current with EELS spectrometer
  Beam current of FIB   Emission current in electron guns
  Low electron beam current density to minimize specimen damage in EELS measurements    
Current density scaling of interconnects in ICs Current: Electrons/holes mobility & current versus strain in materials
Curtaining effect in FIB-EM sample preparation Curved edge in EELS systems
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) Cylinders in EMs
Cylinder symmetry of some lenses Curved optics in EMs
Cs/C3 & C5 (spherical aberration) correctors   
C49-C54 titanium disilicide (TiSi2)