Electron microscopy
 
Charge-Flipping Algorithm
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- An Online Book -
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Accurate structure factor intensities can be obtained for all reflections from single crystal X-ray diffractions. Determination of crystal structure factor phases can be done through direct methods, Patterson method, charge-flipping algorithm or maximum entropy method, in combination with single crystal X-ray diffraction.

The overlapping problem of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) can be partially solved through the fast iterative Patterson squaring (FIPS), [1] repartitioning by histogram matching in a charge-flipping algorithm [2] or other methods.

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] M. A. Estermann, L. B. McCusker and Ch. Baerlocher, J. Appl. Crystallogr., 1992, 25, 539; M. A. Estermann and V. Gramlich, J. Appl.
Crystallogr., 1993, 26, 396.
[2] Ch. Baerlocher, L. B.McCusker and L. Palatinus, Z. Kristallogr., 2007, 20 222, 47.

 

 

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