Contacts in ICs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

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In integrated circuits (ICs), conductive lines provide electrical interconnection among different parts of the ICs, devices, and the outside. The main applications of metallization are classified by gate, contact, and interconnection. Polysilicon and silicides are commonly applied as gates and interconnects in MOS devices. Aluminum, copper, tungsten, silver, titanium, platinum, gold, and palladium are used as these types of contacts, connections, and/or interconnection to external components.

Note that to have good electrical contacts between metals and semiconductor materials in ICs, ohmic contacts are needed.

Table 2038. Metallization selections in ICs.

Application
Selection
Gates, interconnection, and
contacts
Polysilicon, refractory metal silicides (e.g. MoSix, TaSix, WSix, and TiSix), nitrides,aluminum, copper, and/or refractory metals.
Diffusion barrier layer
Ti, TiN, Ta, TaN, Ti-W alloy, and/or silicides
Top level
Aluminum, and/or copper
Metallization on silicon
Silicides, tungsten, aluminum, and/or copper

 

 

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