Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have recently been applied in cryogenic environments in the temperature range of 83 to 123 K. For instance, it becomes a potential alternative to cryomicrotome for sectioning frozen biological samples to explore the engineering issues and is a possible tool to pattern organic materials in submicron scale. In this technique, ion milling of water ice should be taken into account. For a beam with 30 keV Ga ion at 80° incident angle in cryo-FIB, the sputtering yield on a water (H2O) ice surface is about 18 molecules/ion.
Comparing with cryo-ultra microtome technique, the viewing area of lamella created with cryo-FIB technique is much smaller, but there are still some advantages with cryo-FIB technique as follows:
i) Absence of artifacts caused by cryo-sectioning such as no crevasses and no compression. 
ii) More uniform thickness. 
iii) Localization of specific site. 
An example of cryo-FIB-SEM systems is that a Nova Nanolab 600 Dualbeam microscope (FEI Company, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) was equipped with a PP2000T cryo transfer system with a CHE2000 12 l Dewar as well as an Advanced Transfer Unit (ATU) (Quorum Technologies Ltd., Ringmer, UK) . The cryo-temperature was achived with LN2 (liquid nitrogen). For ion milling, a flipper supporting the sample can be tilted to 38 degrees. To identify the crystalline phase, EBSD (Transmission-Electron BackScatter Diffraction) was used. In addition, to protect the sample from contamination, a cold trap at -175 °C was used to collect any water vapor that came within the vicinity of the sample.
Figure 2456. Sample stage in a cryo-FIB-SEM system. Adapted from 
 Al-Amoudi, A., Studer, D., Dubochet, J., 2005. Cutting artefacts and cutting process in
vitreous sections for cryo-electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 150 (1), 109–121.
 Jiménez, N., Van Donselaar, E.G., De Winter, D.A., Vocking, K., Verkleij, A.J., Post, J.A.,
2010. Gridded Aclar: preparation methods and use for correlative light and
electron microscopy of cell monolayers, by TEM and FIB–SEM. J. Microsc. 237
 D. A. Matthijs de Winter, Rob J. Mesman, Michael F. Hayles, Chris T.W.M. Schneijdenberg, Cliff Mathisen, Jan A. Post, In-situ integrity control of frozen-hydrated, vitreous lamellas prepared by the cryo-focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope, Journal of Structural Biology 183 (2013) 11–18.