Electron microscopy
Valence Electron Energy Modified by Bond Formation
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   http://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The energy of valence electrons is directly modified by the bond formation process. Although the core electrons do not directly contribute to the chemical bond formation, their energies are still affected by the corresponding change in the valence charge distribution and then can indirectly reveal the bond properties. For instance, during the formation of an ionic bond, valence electrons are transferred from the cations to the anions. The cation contains less negative valence-electron charge than the neutral atom so that the core electrons interact with a local charge distribution that is more positive than for an isolated atom, and then their energy decreases. On the other hand, the energies of the core electrons in anions increase with respect to the neutral isolated atoms. For this reason, the information from core electrons is more easily extractable. For instance, such energy changes can be easily measured with EELS or photoemission spectroscopy.



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