Contrast Dependence on Vaccum Level/Gas Pressure in SEM
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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Charge-induced SE (secondary electron) contrast is well known in conventional (high vacuum) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of materials, e.g. insulators [1–3], insulator–conductor composites [4], passivated semiconductors [5] and superconductors [6]. This charging phenomenon causes difficulties in the control of charging artifacts, inducing degradations of imaging and spatial resolution [7].

In fact, in a controlled gaseous environment and low vacuum SEM, the effects of inhomogeneous specimen charging on image contrast can be controlled, resulting in stable contrast and utilized for the characterization of a wide range of dielectrics [8].

[1] R.D. Van Veld, T.J. Shaffner, in: O.M. Johari (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1971, p. 17.
[2] J.B. Pawley, in: O.M. Johari (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1972, p. 153.
[3] T.J. Shaffner, in: O.M. Johari (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1973, p. 293.
[4] K.T. Chung, J.H. Reisner, E.R. Campbell, J. Appl. Phys. 54 (1983) 6099.
[5] A. Jakubowicz, J. Appl. Phys. 74 (1993) 6488.
[6] K.A. Jenkins, J. Appl. Phys. 70 (1991) 7179.
[7] T.J. Shaffner, in: O.M. Johari (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1976, p. 61.
[8] T.C. Baroni, B.J. Griffin, J.R. Browne, F.J. Lincoln, Microsc. Microanal. 6 (2000) 49.

 

 

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