X-Ray Applications
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Electron microscopy
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Using some X-ray techniques listed in Table 4687a, we can not only quickly determine what chemical elements are in the area of the specimen interacting with the incident electron beam but also quantify the amount of each element in quite a straightforward way.

Table 4687a. X-ray techniques.

Abbreviation
Full name
EDS
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
WDS
Wavelength Dispersive (X-Ray) Spectroscopy
HIXE
Hydrogen/helium induced X-ray emission
PIXE
Particle induced X-ray emission
PIXE
Proton-induced x-ray emission
XRD
X-ray diffraction
XPD
X-ray photoelectron diffraction
XPS
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
XES
X-ray emission spectroscopy
XAS
X-ray absorption spectroscopy
RIXS
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
WD-TXRF
Vapor phase decomposition total X-ray fluorescence
 
XRF
X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy
TXRF
Total reflection X-ray fluorescence
TRXFR
Total reflection X-ray fluorescence 
XFS
X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy
 
XRD
X-ray spectrometry
GIXD/GIXRD
Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction
 
EXAFS
Extended X-ray absorption fine structure
SEXAFS
Surface-extended X-ray absorption fine structure
NEXAFS
Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure
XANES
X-ray absorption near-edge structure
XAFS
X-ray absorption fine structure

Table 4687b lists some typical fields which EDS are applied to and the problems of their EDS measurements.

Table 4687b. Typical fields which EDS are applied to and the problems of their EDS measurements.
Field
Examining elements
Problems
Plant (tissue) High concentration of hydrated hydrocarbons, oxygen and nitrogen, and low concentrations of other elements Preparation artefacts, and misquantification (see page3826 and page2513), and even misidentification of elements

 

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