Electron microscopy
Mass Absorption Coefficients of X-Rays
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The intensity of the transmitted X-ray is a function of the intensity of a generated X-ray (I0), mass absorption coefficient μ (cm2/g), material density ρ (g/cm3), and thickness (cm):

                   Mass Absorption Coefficients of X-Rays -------------------------------------- [1313a]

As an example, page1730 shows X-ray absorption and intensity reduction induced by carbon contamination in EMs.

The mass absorption coefficient (e.g. Figure 1313) can be given by,

                   Mass Absorption Coefficients of X-Rays -------------------------------------- [1313b]
         NA -- Avogadro’s number,
         A -- The atomic weight,
         σa -- The total atomic absorption cross section (cm2/atom).         

Figure . Mass absorption coefficients of .
Figure 1313. Mass absorption coefficients of Al (aluminum), Cu (copper), C (carbon), W (tungsten), and Si (silicon).