Sputtering/Etching Threshold Energies
by Incident Energetic Electron & Ion Beams
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

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Table 4384. Sputtering (etching) threshold energies by incident energetic electron and ion beams.

Element
Sputtering threshold energies by incident electrons [keV]
 
Al
65 [1]; 180 [2]
 
Au
407 [1]; 1320 [2]
 
C
68 [1]
 
C: Graphite
140 [2]
 
C: Diamond
330 [2]
 
Co
171 [1]
 
Cr
142 [1]
 
Cu
147 [1]; 420 [2]
 
Fe
158 [1]
 
Ag
202 [1]
 
Ge
181 [1]
 
Li
8.7 [1]
 
Mo
366 [1]
 
Mn
109 [1]
 
Nb
385 [1]
 
Ni
172 [1]
 
Pt
560 [1]
 
Si
91 [1]
 
Sr
104 [1]
 
Ta
673 [1]
 
Ti
154 [1]
 
V
175 [1]
 
W
728 [1]
 
Zn
63 [1]
 
Zr
328 [1]
 
 
 

Figure 4384 shows the threshold energy for damage displacement for onset of electron sputtering in solid elements. Any incident electron beams with higher voltages than the threshold voltage can cause atomic sputtering.

Threshold energy for damage displacement for onset of electron sputtering in solid elements

Figure 4384. Threshold energy for damage displacement for onset of electron sputtering in solid elements [3].

 

 

[1] R. F. Egerton, R. McLeod, F.Wang, M.Mala, Basic questions related to electron-induced sputtering in the TEM, Ultramicroscopy 110 (2010) 991–997.
[2] Hobbs, L. W., 1987. Radiation effects in analysis by TEM. In: Hren, J. J., Goldstein, J. I., Joy, D. C. (Eds.), Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 399–445.
[3] R.F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM, Micron 35 (2004) 399–409.

 

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