
Resolution Limit of Electron Microscopes
 Practical Electron Microscopy and Database 
 An Online Book 

http://www.globalsino.com/EM/

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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The resolution of electron microscopes (EMs) is partially limited by: i) The electrical stability of the EM systems, e.g. the stabilities of the high voltage and the lens currents; ii) External disturbances e.g. mechanical vibration, contamination, charging, fluctuation of stray magnetic fields, and the nonuniform magnetic properties of the polepiece material used. Furthermore, the fundamental resolution limit of EMs is also described by Scherzer theorem [1], stating that chromatic aberration (C_{c}) and spherical aberration (C_{s}) are unavoidable for static, rotationallysymmetric electron lenses. As a result, the resolution of conventional electron microscopes is limited to ~ 100 times the wavelength of the electrons.
[1] O. Scherzer, Z. Phys. 101 (1936) 593.

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