This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.

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Incoherent electrons can either originate from different sources or from two distant points of a large source, meaning no phase relation between the electrons. The image is formed by the superposition of the intensity of the beams if two incoherent electron beams is used. In the incoherent imaging model, the recorded intensity can be given by [1–3],
 [4201]
where,
ψ  The wave function in the crystal,
Δf  The defocus,
R  The position on the sample surface,
V_{eff}  The effective scattering potential for the inelastic scattering.
[1] D. Cherns, A. Howie, M.H. Jacobs, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A 28 (1973)
565–571.
[2] K. Ishizuka, Ultramicroscopy 90 (2002) 71–83.
[3] L.J. Allen, S.D. Findlay, M.P. Oxley, C.J. Rossouw, Ultramicroscopy 96 (2003)
47.
