Researchers have studied chemical changes induced by ion beam irradiation. These changes can be formation of intermetallic compounds, or chemically modified surface layers made up of both target and projectile species. Intermetallic phase formation has been well established and understood in materials combinations as in Al implantation into Ni, Ni into Al, Eu into stainless steel, Si into Ni, Co into Si, and Ga in to Cu, Au, and W [1 - 8].
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