Electron microscopy
Defects in Crystals Formed by Ion-Implantation and Annealing
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The most important extended defects in crystals formed by ion implantation followed by annealing are so-called {311} defects, stacking faults, and perfect dislocation loops. Table 1819 lists some examples of defects formed by ion implantation followed by annealing. During higher temperature annealing, the defects in crystals undergo a series of transitions from self-interstitial clusters to {113} defects to dislocation loops.

Table 1819. Examples of defects formed by ion implantation followed by annealing.

Substrate Implant


Resistivity (µΩcm)

Implantation dose
Annealing (temperature/time) Reference
Si Si

{311} defects and low concentration dislocations

  0.2 700 °C/1 h [1]
Si Si Low concentration {311} defects
and dislocations
  0.2 700 °C//several h [1]
Si Si {311} defects and dislocations   1 700 °C [1]
Si Si Dislocations   1 800 °C [1]
Si Fe Poly-crystal 100-120 400 950 °C/30 min  
Si Nb Poly-crystal 60-100 300-400 900 °C/30 min  
Si Ta Poly-crystal 100 300 900 °C/30 min  
Si W Poly-crystal 40-60 500 900 °C/30 min  
Si Mo Poly-crystal 200-300 500 950 °C/30 min  






[1] K. S. Jones, J. Liu, L. Zhang, V. Krishnamoorthy, R. T. DeHoff, Studies of the interactions between (311) defects and type I and II dislocation loops in Si+ implanted silicon, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 106 (1995) 227-232.



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