History of EELS Technique
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Table 3935. History of EELS technique 

Year
Researcher
Details
References
Late 1800s Starke Suggested an electron source could generally distinguish materials of different compositions [10]
1904 G. Leithäuser First attempts of measuring the energy loss of fast electrons traveling through matter date back to the work long before TEM invention
[8]
1929 E. Rudberg Used electron reflection spectrometer to measure energy loss of reflected electrons from copper surfaces. [1]
1940s James Hillier and R. F. Baker EELS technique based on a transmission electron beam was developed. [3]
1941 G. Ruthemann The first measurement of the energy spectra of transmitted electrons using higher incident energy (2–10 keV) [5]
1944 James Hillier and R. F. Baker The first study of inner-shell energy loss of transmitted electrons (refer to Figure 3935 below ) [6]
1948 Ruthemann, G. Core loss spectrum [9]
1960s   Became used practically as a consequence of the progress achieved in coupling well-adapted analyzers and filters to EM columns
 
1962 H. Boersch The first Wien filter was used for EELS of transmitted electrons in Berlin [7]
1970s   Design of spectrometers and imaging filters flourished  
1980s   The main use of EELS has been the elemental quantification until the end of the 1980s.  
1982 J. M. Cowley Used electron reflection spectrometer to measure energy loss of reflected electrons from materials surfaces in FE-SEM (field-emission SEM). [2]
1990s   EELS technique has been widely used in advanced TEM systems at high energy resolutions with high vacuum systems. [4]
Late 1990s   Schottky emission sources became available and have been providing energy resolution greater than 0.5 eV.  
2009   The GIF (Gatan imaging filter) Quantum employs fifth-order aberration correction, a 9-mm entrance aperture, faster CCD readout, and a 1-μs electrostatic shutter to allow simultaneous recording of the low-energy-loss and core-loss regions of a spectrum.  
       

James Hillier (1915-2007) and Baker at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA)  Labs at Princeton, New Jersey, built an electron microprobe, combining an electron microscope with an energy-loss spectrometer in 1944.

Figure 3935. James Hillier (1915-2007) and Baker at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
Labs at Princeton, New Jersey, built an electron microprobe, which combined an electron
microscope with an energy-loss spectrometer in 1944.

 

 

[1] Rudberg, E. (1930) Characteristic energy losses of electrons scattered from incandescent solids. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A127, 111–140.
[2] Cowley, J. M. (1982) Surface energies and surface structure of small crystals studies by use of a STEM instrument. Surf. Sci. 114, 587–606.
[3] J. Hillier and Baker, R. F. (September 1944). "Microanalysis by means of electrons". J. Appl. Phys. 15 (9): 663–675.
[4] H. H. Rose "Optics of high-performance electron microscopes - a review" Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9 (2008) 014107.
[5] Ruthemann, G. (1941) Diskrete Energieverluste schneller Elektronen in Festkörpern. Naturwissenschaften 29, 648.
[6] Hillier, J., and Baker, R. F. (1944) Microanalysis by means of electrons. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 663–675.
[7] Boersch, H., Geiger, J., and Hellwig, H. (1962) Steigerung der Auflösung bei der Elektronen-Energieanalyse. Phys. Lett. 3, 64–66.
[8] Leithäuser, G., 1904. Über den geschwindigkeitsverlust, welchen die kathodenstrahlen beim durchgang durch du¨nne metallschichten erleiden, und über die ausmessung magnetischer spektren. Ann. Phys. 15, 283–306.
[9] Ruthemann, G., 1941. Diskrete energieverluste schneller elektronen in festkörpern. Die Naturwissenschaften 29, 648.
[10] Scott VD, Love G (1983) Quantitative electron-probe microanalysis. Wiley, New York.


 

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