Conditions to Minimize Electron-Beam-Induced
Reduction of Materials in EELS Measurements
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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For instance, to minimize the electron-beam-induced chemical reduction of Mn4+ in Mn-containing minerals [1], each analysis has to be obtained in a low-dose condition using the lowest probe current while still producing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. This damage minimization can be done by spreading the electron beam for a low irradiation rate, e.g. smaller than 2 × 104 e/nm2/s. At this condition, the acquisition time for each spectrum can be relatively long, e.g. 8–10 s. If the counts for a single spectrum are not sufficient to produce pronounced sharp peaks, a series of spectra should be summed to improve counting statistics such that the integrated dose for each accumulated spectrum is more than 2 × 106 e/nm2.

 

[1] Garvie, L.A.J. and Craven, A.J., (1994) Electron-beam-induced reduction of Mn4+ in manganese oxides as revealed by parallel EELS. Ultramicroscopy, 54, 83–92.

 

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