Physical Failure Analysis (PFA) in ICs
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -

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Physical failure analysis (PFA) of advanced technology nodes mainly face three main challenges:
        i) Shrinking dimensions require to get sufficient resolution to observe the defects.
        ii) The chemical complexity of deposited layers may lead to misinterpretation of the analyzed faults.
        iii) Sample preparation of small structures.

Physical failure analysis (PFA) techniques for ICs are:
        i) Optical microscopes;
        ii) Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and EDS;
        iii) Focused ion beam (FIB);
        iv) TEM, EDS, and EELS;
        v) RIE dry etch;
        vi) Chemical wet etch (including junction staining);
        vii) Auger;
        viii) SIMS
        ix) XPS
        x) FTIR;
        ix) AFM;
        xii) Parallel lapping tools (die and package level);
        xiii) Wire bonder/reball/decapsulation tools.

 

 

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