Graphite as Negative Electrodes in Lithium Batteries
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For the application as negative electrodes in lithium batteries, graphite anodes can accommodate one lithium atom for every six carbon atoms. The charging rate is determined by the shape of the long, thin graphene sheets. While charging, the lithium ions must travel to the outer edges of the graphene sheet before coming to rest between the sheets. The circuitous route takes so long that they encounter congestion around those outer edges.

Table 1376. Comparison of the properties of some typical anodes.

  LTO (lithium titanate oxide) Graphite Silicon
Type Intercalation Intercalation Alloying
Theoretical capacity mAh/g 175 330 4200
Voltage vs Li/Li+ (V) 1.5 0.1 0.1
Current collector Aluminium Copper Copper
Main disadvantages Low voltage & low energy density cell Safety issues Volume expansion (up to 300%), poor cycling ability