Indirect Aberration Corrections
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -  

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


The main methods for indirect aberration corrections are:
         i) High-resolution electron holography, [1,2]
         ii) Through-focus series reconstruction. [3 - 6]

Those two techniques measure the exit wave function in the image plane, ψim(g), and then restore the exit wave in the object plane, ψobj(g), by applying a numerical phase-plate exp(-2πiχ(g)). The aberration function χ(g) is determined independently. [6, 7] The restored exit wave in the object plane can provide atomic structure information without delocalization and better information limit.




[1] Lichte, H. (1986). Electron holography approaching atomic resolution. Ultramicroscopy 20, 293–304.
[2] Tonomura, A. (1993). Electron Holography. Berlin: Springer.
[3] Coene, W. & Jansen, A.J.E.M. (1992). Image delocalisation and high resolution transmission electron microscopic imaging with a field emission gun. Scan Microsc 6 (Suppl.), 379–403.
[4] Coene, W.M.J., Thust, A., Op de Beeck, M. & Van Dyck, D. (1996). Maximum-likelihood method for focus-variation image reconstruction in high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 64, 109–135.
[5] Saxton, W.O. (1994). What is the focus variation method? Is it new? Is it direct? Ultramicroscopy 55, 171–181.
[6] Thust, A., Overwijk, M.H.F., Coene, W.M.J. & Lentzen, M. (1996). Numerical correction of lens aberrations in phase retrieval HRTEM. Ultramicroscopy 64, 249–264.
[7] Lehmann, M. (2000). Determination and correction of the coherent wave aberration from a single off-axis electron hologram by means of a genetic algorithm. Ultramicroscopy 85, 165–182.



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