Germanium (Ge)
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
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Germanium (Ge) has poor native oxides.

Table 2063a. Properties of germanium crystals.

Energy gap Eg (eV)
0.74 at 0 K; 0.66 at 300 K
Intrinsic resistivity ρi (Ωcm)
Intrinsic carrier concentration ni (cm-3)
2.0 x 1013
Electron mobility µe (cm2V-1s-1)
Hole mobility µh (cm2V-1s-1) ≤1900
Dielectric constant
Heavy hole mass 0.33 Light hole mass 0.043
Lattice constant (nm) 0.5658 Density at 300K (g/cm3) 5.323
Interatomic distances in amorphous Ge (nm)
0.244, 0.403, 0.602, 0.758    
Optical phonon energy (meV) 37 Conduction band minimum L
Energy gap at Γ (eV) 0.80 Spin–orbit splitting (eV) 0.296
Electron affinity (eV) 4.01 Longitudinal electron mass 1.64
Transverse electron mass 0.092 Electron drift mobility µe
0.39 at 300 K
Hole drift mobility µh
0.19 at 300 K Static refractive index 4.0
Radiative recombination coefficient (cm3s−1) 6.4 × 10−14 Elastic constant (dyn cm-2) C11=12.6 ×10−11 at 300 K; C12=4.4 ×10−11 at 300 K; C44=6.77 ×10−11 at 300 K
Melting temperature (K) 1210 Raman spectra Germanium

Table 2063b. Some surface energies (J/m2) of low-index surfaces of germanium crystals. The types of reconstructions are indicated. (1x1) relaxed denotes an unreconstructed cleavage surface.

1.0     c(4 × 4)
1.17     (1 × 1) relaxed
1.01    c(2 × 8)

Figure 2063 shows the solubility for impurities (including Ge) in SiC.

Solubility for impurities in SiC

Figure 2063. Solubility for impurities in SiC.




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