Germanium (Ge)
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Germanium (Ge) surface normally has poor native oxides.

Table 2063a. Properties of germanium crystals.

Intrinsic resistivity ρi (Ωcm)
46
Electron mobility µe (cm2V-1s-1)
≤3900
Dielectric constant
16.2
Density at 300K (g/cm3) 5.323
Conduction band minimum L
Spin–orbit splitting (eV) 0.296
Effective masses of (100) electrons in longitudinal direction ml/m0 1.64
Electron drift mobility µe
(m2V-1s-1)
0.39 at 300 K
Static refractive index 4.0
Elastic constant (dyn cm-2) C11=12.6 ×10−11 at 300 K; C12=4.4 ×10−11 at 300 K; C44=6.77 ×10−11 at 300 K
Raman spectra Germanium
Energy (band) gap Eg (eV)
0.74 at 0 K; 0.66 at 300 K
Indirect bandgap (Eg,ind, eV) 0.66
Direct bandgap (Eg, dir, eV) 0.80
Intrinsic carrier concentration ni (cm-3)
2.0 x 1013
Hole mobility µh (cm2V-1s-1) ≤1900
Heavy hole mass 0.33
Effective masses of heavy holes (mhh/m0) 0.28
Effective masses of light holes (mlh/m0) 0.043
Lattice constant (nm) 0.5658
Interatomic distances in amorphous Ge (nm)
0.244, 0.403, 0.602, 0.758
Optical phonon energy (meV) 37
Energy gap at Γ (eV) 0.80
Electron affinity (eV) 4.01
Effective masses of (100) electrons in transverse direction (mt/m0) 0.092
Hole drift mobility µh
(m2V-1s-1)
0.19 at 300 K
Radiative recombination coefficient (cm3s−1) 6.4 × 10−14
Melting temperature (K) 1210
Miscibility with Si Complete

Table 2063b. Some surface energies (J/m2) of low-index surfaces of germanium crystals. The types of reconstructions are indicated. (1x1) relaxed denotes an unreconstructed cleavage surface.

Solid
(100)
(110)
(111)
Ge
1.0     c(4 × 4)
1.17     (1 × 1) relaxed
1.01    c(2 × 8)

Figure 2063 shows the solubility for impurities (including Ge) in SiC.

Solubility for impurities in SiC

Figure 2063. Solubility for impurities in SiC.

 

 

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