Passive Voltage Contrast (PVC) of pn-Junction Structures/Diodes
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In integrated circuits (ICs), there are many contacts formed by combining doped materials, semiconducting materials, metals, and/or alloys. For instance, in Figure 3856 the contacts formed between the two doped regions results in pn junctions (diodes). The metal plug is positively charged in Figure 3856 (a) because the pn junction is reverse-biased due to the emission of secondary electrons (SEs), while it is not charged in Figure 3856 (b) because the pn junction is forward-biased. Therefore, the metal plug appears dark in Figure 3856 (a) while it appears bright in Figure 3856 (b).

Passive voltage contrast (PVC) of pn-junction structure

Figure 3856. Passive voltage contrast (PVC) of pn-junction structures.

 

 

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