Electron microscopy
Vacuum Systems, Gauges, and Applications
- Practical Electron Microscopy and Database -
- An Online Book -
Microanalysis | EM Book                                                                                   http://www.globalsino.com/EM/        

This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.


In general, the vacuum systems of standard EMs are composed of mechanical pump(s) (rotary pumps, rough pumps, or forepumps), diffusion pump(s), vacuum gauges, switching valves, and a network of connecting pipes.

Table 2351. Typical working pressure ranges and accuracies of various vacuum gauges.

Ultra-high vacuum
(<10-7 mbar or <10-5 Pa)
High vacuum
(10-7-10-3 mbar or 10-5-10-1 Pa)
Medium vacuum
(10-3 - 1 mbar or 10-1 - 101 Pa)
Rough vacuum
(1-103 mbar or 101-105 Pa)
10-13 mbar 10-11 mbar 10-9 mbar 10-8 mbar 10-7 mbar 10-6 mbar 10-5 mbar 10-4 mbar 10-3 mbar 10-2 mbar 10-1 mbar 1 mbar 102 mbar  
                      Active strain gauge
                Active thermocouple gauge        
Liquid level manometer
Capacitance diaphragm (CDG)
        ±0.02 to 0.2%
Elastic element gauge
Compression gauge
Pressure balance
Viscosity gauge (spinning rotor)
      ±1 to 10%
                  Thermal conductivity gauge (Pirani) ±5%
Thermomolecular gauge
Radioactive ionization gauge
Penning gauge
Cold-cathode magnetron gauge
Cold-cathode inverted magnetron gauge
High-frequency vacuum test
Hot-cathode ionization gauge (HCIG)
High-pressure ionization gauge
Bayard-alpert gauge
Modulator gauge
Suppressor gauge
Extractor gauge
Bent beam gauge
Hot-cathode magnetron gauge
Pressure ranges
Piston pump
Diaphram pump
Liquid-ring pump
Sliding vane rotary pump
Multiple-vane rotary pump
Rotary piston pump
Rotary plunger pump
Roots pump
Turbine pump
Gaseous-ring pump
Turbomolecular pump
Liquid jet pump
Vapor jet pump
Diffusion pump
Diffusion ejector pump
Absorption pump
Sublimation pump
Sputter-ion pump
Vacuum deposition/evaporation (a type of PVD processes)
in TEMs
chamber in TEMs
TEM chamber & camera






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