This book (Practical Electron Microscopy and Database) is a reference for TEM and SEM students, operators, engineers, technicians, managers, and researchers.
Metrology tools for the semiconductor industry may include a variety of technologies and instruments such as SEMs, wafer probes, AFMs, profilometers, and ellipsometers. For instance, in the past decade or so, high- and ultrahigh-resolution SEM has proven an indispensable critical-dimension (CD)- metrology tool for the semiconductor industry by the semiconductor nanotechnology road map due to the needs for ever-decreasing device sizes . The cost of metrology tools has also been rising, driven by smaller semiconductor device geometries, larger wafer sizes, and the need for increased accuracy and precision.
In general, some types of defects can be identified by in-line metrology, while more cannot due to scaling. Therefore, failure analysis after full fabrication process becomes more important.
Killer particles causing IC failure are normally large in size, and along with missing patterns. These particles are normally the root causes of most cluster defects, can be induced by a tool or a process, and are usually recognized by in-line optical metrology. High particle counts are normally caused by a tool malfunction. Particles smaller than 1 µm are normally not detected by means of optical inline metrology immediately after they are deposited; instead, they are observed when the particle size is magnified by subsequently deposited layers, which makes them visible to inline defect metrology tools.
 Myhajlenko, S., Luby, A. S., Fischer, A. M., Ponce, F. A. & Tracy, C. SEM
characterization of silicon nanostructures: Can we meet the challenge?
Scanning 30, 310 - 316 (2008).