Electron beam induced current (EBIC) was the first application of charging-induced effects in SEM. This generated current is formed by the separation of electron-hole pairs excited by a high energy e-beam (electron-beam) irradiating on semiconductor devices. For instance, the distinction at cross-sectional surfaces between n- and n+ regions was observed on a Si (silicon) wafer . EBIC measurements demonstrated that shallow states exist at Σ3 coincidence site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries. 
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