Electron beam induced current (EBIC) was the first application of charging-induced effects in SEM and STEM. In this EBIC technique, a focused electron beam is scanned across a sample that is attached to a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) as shown in Figure 3831. Then, associating the measured sample current with the beam position forms the EBIC image.
Figure 3831. STEM EBIC imaging of a metal electrode. (top) Schematic of the basic EBIC setup, (middle) ADF STEM image, (bottom) EBIC image. 
Because one primary electron can create thousands of electron-hole pairs, this generated current is formed by the separation of electron-hole pairs excited by a high energy e-beam (electron-beam) irradiating on semiconductor devices. For instance, the distinction at cross-sectional surfaces between n- and n+ regions was observed on a Si (silicon) wafer . EBIC measurements demonstrated that shallow states exist at Σ3 coincidence site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries. 
EBIC imaging has many applications of mapping:
i) PFA failure
ii) Electric fields, e.g. in Si-dislocation defects
iii) Carrier lifetimes
iv) Diffusion lengths
v) Defect energy levels
vi) Surface recombination velocities
 Kato, T., Matsukawa, T., Koyama, H., Fujikawa, K. and Shimizu, R.
(1975) Scanning electron microscopy of charging effect on silicon. J. Appl.
Phys., 46, 2288 - 2292.
 A. Buis, Y. S. Oei and F. W. C. Schapink: Trans. Japan Inst. Metals
Suppl. 27 (1986) 221–228.
 William A. Hubbard, Matthew Mecklenburg, Ho Leung Chan, and B. C. Regan, STEM Imaging with Beam-Induced Hole and Secondary Electron Currents, Physical Review Applied 10, 044066 (2018).