Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index 
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter M
m point group m symmetry
m-3 point group m-3m point group
  M4/M5 ratio of EELS white lines    
M-family of characteristic X-ray emission M-planes of sapphire crystal
Major, minor, & trace elements in materials Apple products: iPhone, iPad, & iPod touch, Apple watch & MacBook
  Lattice-fringe visibility maps    
Maclaurin series Macroscopic and microscopic fields in EM imaging systems
Magnesium (Mg)  
  EDS measurements of magnesium (Mg)   EELS measurements of magnesium (Mg)
  Lead magnesium niobate [Pb(Mgm/nNbn-m/n)O3, PMN]    
  MgS   MgSe
  MgB2   MgO
  Mg-based metallic-glass alloys   Spinel (MgAl2O4)
  Differences between round and multipole lenses   Multipole design for Cs correctors in EMs
Magnetic field
  Measurement of magnetic field using off-axis electron holography   Magnetic field lines
  Magnetic induction    
  Electrons passing through magnetic lens    Electron motion in electrostatic and magnetic fields
  Convex electromagnetic lens    Focal length of magnetic lenses
  Image helical rotation and inversion due to magnetic field     Lorentz force of moving electron in magnetic field
  Aberrations in the electromagnetic round lenses   Magnetic polepieces
  Right-hand rule of Lorentz force vector    Rotationally symmetrical electron lenses/magnetic field
  EEL spectra/image shift on camera caused by magnetic objects   Magnetic prism in GIF camera 
  Magnetic field creep     
  NiFe   FeCoN
  TEM analysis of magnetic materials   Astigmatism corrections of condenser and objective lenses in TEM for magnetic materials
  Coma-free alignment in TEM for magnetic materials   Paramagnetic materials
Magnification of microscopes
  Magnification versus camera length     Magnification and its adjustment in TEM
  Highest useful magnification of microscopes   Magnification of electron microscopes
  High magnification TEM observations   Optical condition for high-magnification imaging in TEM
  Correction of magnification & its aspect ratio of TEM images   Calibration of magnification and scale bar in TEM
Main and satellites reflections in electron diffraction patterns Manager/director of electron microscope labs
  EELS of Mn (manganese)   Valence states of manganese
  (HAADF) STEM images of manganese (Mn)
  LaMnO3   TMO6 (e.g. MnO6) octahedral lattice
Manually correctable aberrations Manufacturers/companies producing FIB & EM instruments
Marginal ray focus Market: EM companies in stock markets
Martensitic transformation Martensite
  Hole mask/entrance mask in GIF system    
Mass absorption coefficients of X-rays  
Mass of electrons at accelerating voltage in vacuum Matrix of the seven crystal families in real and reciprocal spaces
  Mass collision (ionization) stopping power   Mass radiative stopping power
Mass-thickness effects
  Mass-thickness effects on EDS signal/intensity   Mass-thickness effects on EELS signal/intensity
  Mass-thickness contrast in TEM images   Mass-thickness contrast in STEM Images
Methanol applied in TEM sample preparation  
  Interaction between incident electrons and matters   Materials used for electron gun
  Table of structural properties of materials   Crystalline materials
Maximizing EDS intensity/counts Maximum achievable sample-tilt-angle in TEM
Maximum-entropy deconvolution Maximum entropy method
Maximum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging (with Scherzer defocus)  
Matlab: GNU Octave
  fprintf in Octave    
Maximum escape depth
  Maximum escape depth of secondary electrons   Maximum escape depth of X-rays 
Maximum ranges of primary electron beam in EMs Maxwell’s equations
  Mean free path of X-rays    
  Mean free path of incident electrons in EMs (table in page4623)    
  Mean free path of electron elastic scattering   Mean free path of Auger electrons
  Electron inelastic mean free path of elements and compounds   TEM sample thickness for STEM and EELS ~ Mean Free Path
  Plasmon mean free path
Mean ionization energy (potential) of complex materials Mean filters for noise reduction
Mean-square atomic displacement Mean time to failure (MTTF) to electromigration
Mean energy loss/average energy loss per inelastic electron collision Mean time between failures (MTBF) to electromigration
Medium range ordering (MRO) in materials Median time to failure (MTTF) to electromigration
  TEM sample preparation method of mechanical polishing + ion milling   Mechanical properties of materials
  EELS ZLP broadening due to mechanical vibration   STM holders for EMs
  Peltier mechanical cooling   Compressive/mechanical pumps
  Mechanical, electron and ion probe diameters   Specimen (stage) drift/instability/movement in TEMs/STEMs
  Mechanical properties of silicides    
  Contribution of mechanical vibrations to diffractograms    
Mechanisms and processes of secondary electron generation  
Meissner effect  
  Eutectic point   Melting point of nano-structures
  Melting/temperature rise of materials in FIB processes   Bonding energies and melting temperatures of substances
  Young's moduli and melting temperature   Melt-spinning
  Relationship between bond energy and melting point    
  Crystal percentage in metallic glasses made from melts   Cooling rate to make metallic glasses from melts
  Glass forming ability (GFA) from melts   Critical casting thickness for formation of metallic glass alloys from melts
  Ferroelectric random access memories (FRAMs)   Comparison between different memories
  1T1C/2T2C architectures in memories   Failure analysis of memories
  Nonvolatile electrical memory devices    
Milling rate of materials in FIB Milling rate of materials with argon ion polishing
Mercury (Hg)   
Merohedral point groups  
  Oxygen vacancy in metal oxides   Thermodynamic stability of metal gate oxides in ICs
Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)  
  Free-electron and interband transition metals   Transition-metal complexes
  Metals in periodic table     Metalloids in periodic table  
  Metal-insulator transition (MIT) with change of temperature   Free-electron metals
  Metal gate    Refractory metal silicides in ICs
  Critical casting thickness for formation of metallic glass alloys from melts    
  Comparison between ionic, covalent, and metallic materials   TEM analysis of metallic materials
  fcc-type packing short range ordering of metallic glass   Free volume in metallic glasses
  Structural relaxation of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures   Free volume change of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures
  HRTEM images & electron diffraction of amorphous metallic glasses   Glass transition of metallic glasses
  Crystallization of metallic glasses   Defects in metallic glasses
  Electrical resistivity/resistance of metallic glass depending on temperature   Plastic deformation of metallic glasses
  Phase separation in metallic glasses   Crystal percentage in metallic glasses made from melts
  Cooling rate to make metallic glasses from melts    
  Properties of metal interconnects and metallization selection for ICs
  Metallization in IC fabrication
  IC failure induced during metal etching    
Metrology tools for semiconductor industry Miller-Bravais indices
  Determination of Miller indices of planes    
  Gaudefroyite (Ca4Mn3+2.5(BO3)3(CO3)O2.25(OH)0.75)   Iron (Fe)
Microdiffraction pattern/shadow image/Ronchigram in STEM  
  Vacuum requirements of EMs for microelectronics industry    
  Fluctuation microscopy    
Microtome for specimen-sectioning Microwave
Microwave semiconductor devices
  Minimum attainable probe size in STEM   Minimum (phase-)contrast in (HR)TEM imaging with Gaussian defocus
Minimum detectable mass (MDM)
  Sensitivity/detection limit/minimum detectable mass of EELS   Minimum detectable limit (mass)/minimum mass fraction (MMF) of EDS
Mirror planes (m, σ) in crystals  
  Lattice-mismatched epitaxial alloy   Misfit dislocation: Lattice mismatch versus misfit dislocation separation
  Misfit layer chalcogenides   Modulation/satellite reflections due to mutually commensurate mismatch
  Misfit strain    
Missing pattern failure in IC chips Mixed dislocations
mm2 point group mmm point group
Mobile devices
  ICs in mobile devices   Mobile device/hardware
  Standby power for mobile devices    
Mobile charges in SiO2 field insulator in MOS structures Möllenstedt–Düker biprisms in optical and electron microscopes
  Electromigration transport mobility of ions in materials   Electrons/holes mobility & current versus strain in materials
  Models of SEM/TEM/STEM systems   Models of FIB systems
  Model for TEM samples for EM simulations   Modelings & simulations
Models for simulation in EM techniques  
  EELS of gaseous atoms and molecules    
  EELS Measurement of Molybdenum (Mo)   EDS/WDS measurements of molybdenum (Mo)
  MoSix    Molybdenite (MoS2, molybdenum sulfide)
Momentum space  
 Momentum transfer
  Momentum/energy transfer from charged particle to matter   Momentum transfer of electron due to collision with atoms
  Momentum transfer of incident electrons after atomic ionization/energy loss    
  Young’s fringes produced by TEM image shift (with and without monochromator)   Monochromatic electron source in EMs
  EELS energy resolutions improved by monochromators   Disadvantages of monochromation system in EMs
  2 point group   m point group
  2/m point group    
Monoclinic space groups
A-centered lattices/A-centering & its space groups          
A2/a (C2/c , 15) A2/m            
C-centered lattices/C-centering & their space groups          
C2 (5) Cm (8) Cc (9) C2/m (12) C2/c (A2/a, 15)      
P (primitive) lattices & their space groups          
P2 (3) P21 (4) Pm (6) Pc (7) P2/m (10) P21/m (11) P2/c (13) P21/c (14)
  EM simulation of integrated circuits    
Moore’s law Morphological image processing
  Close packed (most densely packed) planes and directions in crystals   Most possible scattering angle of incident electrons for atomic ionization/energy loss
  Most probable energy (MPE) of secondary electron emission   Most probable distance between neighbouring atoms
Motif/basis/lattice point Motion of electron in electrostatic and magnetic fields
Mott differential cross section of elastic scattering "Mottling" visible in FIB and Ar-milled specimens
  Multiple linear least squares (MLLS) fitting in EELS analysis   Multiple linear least-squares (MLLS) peak fitting for EDS analysis
  EELS measurement through the multiple layers    
Multiple/plural scattering of electrons  
  Plural scattering of electrons   Multiple/plural scattering in EELS
  Multiple scattering corrections of EELS   Thin TEM sample to avoid multiple/plural scattering
  Multiple scattering of electrons in EMs   Double/multiple diffraction in electron diffraction patterns
  Multislice simulation (MS) of TEM images   Elastic-inelastic multislice simulation for EELS
Mutual Correlation Function (MCF) Mα X-ray emission
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