Practical Electron Microscopy and Database - An Online Book
Table of Contents/Index
Chapter/Index: Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Appendix
Chapter A 
A-centered lattices/A-centering & its space groups
A2/a (C2/c , 15) A2/m space group            
Amm2 (38) Abm2 (39) Ama2 (40) Aba2 (41) A21am (Cmc21, 36)      
A-planes of sapphire crystal Ab-initio methods used in EELS  
Abbe's equation: resolution limit of microscopes Abma (Cmca, Bmab, 64) space group
  Aberration coefficient C1,2/A1: two-fold axial astigmatism and its corrections in TEMs    Aberration coefficient C2,1 (B2): axial coma aberration
  Shape similarity of aberrations in terms of azimuthal symmetry   Third order aberrations
  Spherical aberration   Spot/beam size and shape limited by aberrations
  Aberrations with four fold symmetry   Aberrations with two fold symmetry
  Aberration in EELS imaging   Off-axis aberrations in EMs
  4-fold parasitic aberrations shown in Ronchigram after aberration correction   Segmental Ronchigram autocorrelation function matrix (SRAM) for aberration correction
  Aberration correction in CTEM   Aberration correction in STEM
  Delta-type aberration correctors   Aberration correction for HAADF imaging
  Aberration corrections in TEM-EELS system   Advantages of EMs with aberration correctors
  Application of aberration corrections   Improvement of spatial resolution using aberration correction in TEM/STEM
  Coma aberration correction in EMs   Spherical aberration correction 
  Fifth-order aberration correction   Comparison between aberration-corrected and uncorrected EMs
  Image contrast in aberration-corrected EMs   Position and length of aberration correctors
  Manually correctable aberrations   Beam tilt in aberration corrected TEM
  Second-order aberration corrections   Reversing sign of aberrations
  EELS & EFTEM measurements in aberration corrected TEMs   Operation of aberration correctors
  Probe current affected by aberration corrections   Electron-probe intensity distribution depending on aberrations
  Zemlin tableaus method   Applicable larger convergence angle in aberration-corrected EMs
  Segmental Ronchigram autocorrelation function matrix (SRAM) for aberration correction   Usage of aberration correctors
  Correction of electron optical aberrations in EFTEM   EDS measurements in aberration corrected TEMs
  Correction of 3rd order star aberration (S3)    
Aberration correction: Indirect aberration corrections
  Aberration correction using off-axis electron holography technique   Aberration correction through-focus series reconstruction
  Determination of the spherical aberration coefficient   Aberration determinations by image shift due to tilting illumination
  Aberration measurement method based on diffractogram   Aberration coefficients determined by defocus-based techniques
  Aberration determination by focal sets of Ronchigram    
  Coherent aberrations   Incoherent aberrations in EMs
   Aberrations in electromagnetic lenses in EMs   Aberration & beam spread/convergence
  Chromatic aberration    Coma aberration in EMs
  Focusing properties of electromagnetic lenses affected by aberrations   Geometric aberration
  Spherical aberration   Diffraction & aberration 
  Incoherent aberrations in EMs   Wave aberration function
  Aberrations and imaging requirements for small field of view in EMs   Aberration in well-aligned EMs 
  Aberrations versus working distance in SEMs   Wavefunction affected by aberrations in CTEM
  Wavefunction affected by aberrations in STEM   Shape similarity of aberrations in terms of azimuthal symmetry
  Aberration dependence of angle of electron rays   Third order aberrations
  Parasitic aberrations in multipole corrector optics   Aberrations and imaging requirements for large field of view in EMs
  Spatial resolution limit affected by aberrations    
  EELS detection of molecularly adsorbed species on surfaces   Absorption edge energy
  Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)   X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)
  X-ray absorption coefficient of typical materials   Periodic table of X-ray absorption edges
  Electron absorption EM specimen (& thickness dependence)
  Fraction of absorbed electrons depending on sample thickness
  Spatial resolution improved by increasing accelerating voltage in EMs   Dependence of Cs and Cc aberrations on accelerating voltage of beam
  Dependence of radiation damage on accelerating voltage of electrons   Dependence of EDS on accelerating voltages of incident electrons
  Dependence of EELS/EFTEM on accelerating voltages of incident electrons   SEM spatial resolution affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam
  Electron backscattering affected by accelerating voltage   STEM imaging affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam
  Backscattered electron imaging affected by accelerating voltage of electron beam   Accelerating voltage dependence of scattering cross-section for ionization
  Instability in accelerating voltage of electron beam   Dependence of observable thickness on accelerating voltage in TEM/STEM
  Dependence of image contrast on accelerating voltage in TEM/STEM   van de Graaff generators
  Properties of accelerated electrons    
  Accuracy of EDS quantification   Accuracy of EELS measurement
  Accuracy of lattice spacing measurements by HRTEM/FFT/electron diffraction   Accuracy of angle measurement in HRTEM images
  Accuracy of CD (critical dimension) measurements using TEM   Improvement of EDS analysis accuracy
  Accuracy of CBED patterns   Accuracy of strain measurement by CBED
  Accuracies of beam tilt & of alignment of zone axis    
  ACD (anti-contamination device) operation on TEM system    
  Adhesion between gold and other materials    
Acronyms/abbreviations used in microscopy and materials Active voltage contrast (AVC) in FIB and SEM
Activation energy of diffusion Activation energy for electromigration (EM)
  Advanced/latest transmission electron microscopes (TEMs/STEMs)   Thin TEM sample to avoid multiple/plural scattering
  EM improvements for reducing beam damage   Advanced/atomic/high resolution/latest SEMs
Advantages & disadvantages
  Advantages of EMs with aberration correctors   Advantages and disadvantages of FIB technology for EM sample preparations
  Advantages and disadvantages of low-/high-voltage TEM and STEM   Advantages and disadvantages of TEM-related techniques
  Pressurized air for EM parts   Airlocks
Aircraft and aerospace industry  
Airy disc Achromatic configurations/lenses/achromats
Achromatic-aplanatic lenses in EMs Actuators
Achromaticity correction in EFTEM Aging in ferroelectrics
  Agglomeration in titanium silicide films    
Alignment in EMs  
  Gun-alignment/adjustment and its coil control system   Aberration in well-aligned EMs
  Alignment of objective lens axis   Spherical aberration affected by beam alignments
  Chromatic aberration affected by beam alignments   Spatial resolution/resolving power affected by beam alignments
  Beam alignment between condenser and objective lenses    
Alkali metals 
  Alkali metals in Periodic table     EELS of alkali metals
  Alkaline hydroxide    
Allowed reflections/diffraction of common crystal structures  
  Electromigration resistance induced by alloying   Gibbs free energy change due to alloy formation
  Shape memory alloys   Alloy liquid metal ion sources for advanced FIBs
  EELS measurement of aluminum   EDS measurements of Al
  AlGaInP   AlGaAs
  AlN   AlAs
  AlP   AlCl3
  Al–X phase diagrams   AlxWy
  Ca3Al2Si3O12   Spinel (MgAl2O4)
  Carbon-coated aluminum   Special application of Al material in EM-related devices
  Aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) based alloys   EFTEM imaging of aluminum
  Atomic-number contrast of aluminum ions   Al/Ti/W/TiN stack used for VLSI
  LaAlO3   Zrx–Nby–Cuz–Nim–Aln alloys
  Compound semiconductor   XPS of aluminum and its related materials
  Aluminum applied in EM systems   Al-based metallic-glass alloys
  Alpha (α)-alumina   Gamma (γ)-alumina
  Aluminum alloys for interconnections in ICs   Al-Cu alloy
Amorphous materials
  Diffractogram intensity of thin amorphous TEM specimen   Analysis of amorphous materials
  Thon rings in bright-filed imaging   Fourier transform and FFT of HRTEM image of amorphous materials
  Kikuchi pattern contrast of EBSD depending on amorphous layer on surface    Ronchigrams of amorphous films
  TEM analysis of defects in amorphous materials     XRD patterns of amorphous materials
  TEM analysis of short range ordering in amorphous materials   HRTEM images & electron diffraction of amorphous metallic glasses
  Analysis of interatomic spacing of amorphous materials using electron diffraction   Analysis of free volume of amorphous materials using electron diffraction
  Free volume change in amorphous materials induced by deformation   Effect of amorphous layer on contrast of HRSEM images
  Effects of amorphous layer and specimen thickness on high resolution STEM images   Crystallization kinetics of amorphous materials
  Difference of binding energies in amorphous and crystalline phases   Tetrahedral structure in amorphous materials
  HAADF-STEM images of amorphous metallic glasses   Difference between bond lengths of amorphous and crystalline materials
  Amorphization of materials due to FIB deposition    Amorphous layer formed during EM sample preparation using Ar milling
  Amorphous layer formed during EM sample preparation using FIB    
Amorphous materials: amorphous alloys
  Amorphous CuxZry alloys    
Ammonium fluorosilicate [(NH4)2SiF6] Ampère-Maxwell law
  Secondary electron detecting/amplifying system in EMs    
Amplitude & intensity of scattered wave by atoms Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter
Amplitudes of HRTEM image  
  Periodic table for analytical TEM (EDS/EELS) analysis    
  Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)   Eenergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS)
  Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)   Cathodoluminescence
  Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)   Electron beam induced current (EBIC)
  Conversion between reciprocal space vector and angle   Angle between two planes/plane normals/poles measured by Wulff net
  Angle between normals to planes/in electron diffraction pattern   Interfacial angles of cubic crystals
  Cell angles in unit cells in crystals
  TEM experimental determination of lattice parameters
  Accuracy of angle measurement in HRTEM images   Angle between directions
  Angle between polarization vectors of adjacent domains in various crystalline phases in ferroelectrics    
Angles in SEM  
  Angular distribution of secondary electrons   Angular distribution/emission angle of secondary electron in SEM  
  Angular/polar distribution of X-ray generation in electron microscopy    
  Transmitted angular-resolved electron scattering distribution
  Angular spread of incident electrons
  Angular distribution of signal/information from TEM measurements   Angular dependence of milling in FIB
  Angular dependence of elastic scattering of electrons   Angular dependence of inelastic scattering of electrons
  Angular distribution of inelastically scattered electrons    
Anode wobbler in TEM  
Anode (negative) & cathode (positive) electrode materials for lithium batteries  
  Anisotropy of thermal expansion coefficients due to defects   Anisotropy of physical and chemical properties of crystals
  Anisotropic wet-etching    
  Nitrogen atmosphere for annealing for semiconductors   Structural relaxation of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures
  Free volume change of metallic glasses at elevated temperatures   Defects in crystals formed by ion-implantation and annealing
  Dependence of crystallized fraction on annealing time and temperature    
Antiferroelectrics & Antiferroelectric materials Annular bright-field measurements
Anti-reflective layer in EDS detector Antibonding
  (HAADF) STEM images of antimony (Sb)   Atomic-number contrast of antimony ions
  Misfit layer chalcogenides: (AX)1+δ(BX2)n (A =ˆ rare earth/Sn/Pb/Sb/Bi; B =ˆ Ti/V/Cr/Nb/Ta; X =ˆ S/Se)   GexSbyTez (GST)
  Sb-X phase diagrams    
Aperiodic crystals Aplanatic lenses/aplanatic points/aplanatic conditions/aplanats
  Apertures in GIF camera    Aperture effect/function of lens
  First aperture in electron gun for filtering electrons     Numerical aperture
  Objective apertures in TEMs   Condenser aperture in EMs
  Stray aperture in EMs   ADF-TEM (annular dark-field transmission electron microscopy) aperture
  Aperture function   Selected area diffraction (SAD) aperture
  Contamination of apertures   Optimal size of virtual objective apertures in STEM and SEM
  Differential pumping aperture (DPA) in EMs   Beam-defining aperture
  EELS signal/intensity affected by collection & convergence angles & apertures   Condenser 1 (C1) and condenser 2 (C2) lens/apertures
  Spray & beam defining apertures in FIB   Collection angles/apertures of EELS (Basics) 
  Problems/damage of apertures   High contrast aperture in TEMs
  Artifacts induced by misalignment of condenser aperture    
Apple products: iPhone, iPad, & iPod touch, Apple watch & MacBook Array mask annotation on Gatan DigitalMicrograph
  Argon milling for TEM specimen preparation   Ultrathin specimen preparation by low-energy Ar-ion milling
  Argon implantation occurring in TEM sample milling process   Amorphous layer formed during EM sample preparation using Ar milling
  "Mottling" visible in FIB- and Ar-milled specimens   Milling rate of materials with argon ion polishing
  Comparison between FIB and Ar (argon) ion milling specimen preparations   Argon ion sputtering yield in milling
  EDS measurement of Argon (Ar)   EELS measurement of Argon (Ar)
ASIC 1/2 pitch (in ICs)  
Areal Density (atoms per unit area) Arrow annotation on DM
  Arsenides   AlAs
  AlGaAs   GaAs
  EELS of Arsenic (As)   InAs
  Compound semiconductor   ZnSSe-based/GaAs heterostructures 
  Astigmatism correction coil control system in SEMs   Condenser stigmators
  Fifth-order 6-fold astigmatism   Difference between axial coma and twofold astigmatism
  Twofold astigmatism   Fresnel fringes affected by objective astigmatism
  Determination of threefold astigmatism (A2) in TEM measurements & its correction   Astigmatism correction in EMs
  Field astigmatism in TEMs   Stigmators
  Objective stigmator/astigmatism correction   Astigmatism in STEMs
  Spatial resolution affected by objective astigmatism   Astigmatism corrections of condenser and objective lenses in TEM for magnetic materials
  Correction of astigmatism of condenser lens using caustic image
  Astigmatism effect on Fourier transform
  Correction of astigmatism of objective lens in TEM using Fresnel fringes
  Correction of astigmatism of objective lens in TEM based on diffractogram
  Correction of astigmatism of objective lens using caustic image   Correction of objective astigmatism with minimum background contrast technique
  Distortion/asymmetry of X-ray peak from Gaussian shape in EDS   Asymmetric units in unit cells
  Asymmetric electron diffraction patterns    
  Number of atoms at surface of and in nanoparticles   Number of lattice points (atoms) per unit cell
  Atomic packing factor in crystals    
Atom column in crystal
  Probability of containing m atoms in a single atom column in crystal   Contrast of atoms in TEM
Atomic displacement
  Atomic displacement parameter/factor & mean-square atomic displacement   Cross-sections of atom displacement due to electron irradiation in bulk
  Displacement energy for bulk and surface diffusion induced by electron irradiation   Displacement energy for atoms in bulk and at sample surface due to electron irradiation
  Displacement energy for surface sputtering/knock-on induced by electron irradiation   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold of chemical elements due to electron irradiation at sample surface
  Energy transfer for atomic displacement/knock-on process due to electron irradiation   Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation
  Elemental (atomic) displacement threshold due to electron irradiation in bulk   Displacement of atoms due to electron irradiation in EMs
  Dependence of inelastical scattering of electrons on atomic number   Dependence of elastic scattering on atomic number
  Dependence of thermal diffuse scattering on atomic number   HRTEM analysis of light elements
  Atomic & ionic radii and valence states of chemical elements in periodic table    
  Artifacts in TEM contrast transfer patterns and profiles   Artifact in image or spectrum with high probe current or analyzing on mobile elements
  Contrast reversal in EMs   Diffraction effects on EELS intensity
  Artifacts in electron holography measurements   Artifact in electron tomography
  Artifacts in EFTEM images   EELS artifacts due to misalignment of ZLP
  Streaking artefacts in FFTs of TEM images   Artifacts and drawbacks of XRD technique
  Streaking artifacts in EELS images or profiles   Artifacts/spurious x-rays in EDS measurements
  Inaccuracy/artifacts in electron diffraction and spurious intensities   Artifacts induced by misalignment of condenser aperture
  Artifact reduction in EM image recording   Streaking artifact in TEM/STEM images
  Artifacts in CBED patterns   EELS artifacts
  Electron atomic scattering factors   Atomic/high resolution/advanced/latest SEMs
  Atomic weight of elements in periodic table     Atomic structure determination by EXELFS
  Atomic short-range ordering   Atomic point defects
  Atomic arrangement in crystal structures   (Atomic) density of different materials
  Atom probe tomography (APT)   Comparison among TEM, APT,ToF SIMS and ICP-MS
Atmospheric thin window (ATW) EDS detector Attenuation of light
  Electron relaxation and Auger electron generation    Comparison between EDS and AES
  Mean free path of Auger electrons   Responding time of Auger electron emission for electron irradiation
  Auger detection in EMs   Comparison between EELS and AES
  AES transitions   Yield of Auger electrons
Autofocus methods in TEM imaging Automotive hardware
Average energy loss/mean energy loss per inelastic electron collision  
Automatic functions
  Automatic qualitative EDS analysis    
  Effects of axial illumination conditions in TEM system   Axial coma aberration in EMs
  Accuracies of beam tilt & of alignment of zone axis    
Azimuthal and radial circles/Ronchigram in STEM